Table 1

Summary of movements tested for pain reproduction and strength via resisted muscle tests, active and passive range of movement tests

AARMIPROMAROM
MR in 0° flexionP✓* † P✓ §✓ §
MR in 90° flexion✓ †XXX
LR in 0° flexionP✓ * ‡ P
LR in 90° flexion✓* ‡XXX
Abduction in 0° extensionX✓ *XX
Adduction in 0° extensionXXX
Adduction in 90° flexionXX✓ *X
FlexionXXX
FABER painfulXX✓ *X
FABER restricted and painfulXX✓ *X
Ober painfulXX✓ *X
Ober restricted and painfulXX✓ *X
  • Note: Examination was undertaken in supine unless otherwise indicated (P: prone). Medial and lateral rotation (MR and LR) range of movement tests were undertaken following the Khan protocol.22 The maximum isometric contraction (MI) was undertaken using a fixed dynamometer with the participant's limbs and pelvis were stabilised using non-elastic straps. FABER and Ober tests were undertaken following the Woodley protocol,7 with participants asked if the test was painful, and then asked to identify where the pain was located.

  • AAR, assessor-applied resistance—maximum isometric contraction (manual resistance); AROM, active range of movement; FABER, flexion abduction external rotation; MI, maximum isometric contraction (fixed dynamometer applied resistance); PROM, passive range of movement.

  • ✓: Test undertaken; X: Test not undertaken.

  • *Included in classification tree as a single variable.

  • ‡,†,§Indicated that the two tests identified by the symbol were considered with an either or result. For example, ‡Indicates that the results from AAR for LR in 0° flexion and MI for LR in 90° flexion were considered together. That is, a positive result from either of these tests was considered a positive result for resisted LR.