Table 1

25[OH]D concentrations in athletic populations worldwide

AuthorsParticipantsFindings 25 (OH)D concentration (nmo/l)
Lehtonen-Veromaa et al16191 Finnish female junior runners67.7%<37.5 13.4%<20
Ducher et al1718 Australian male ballet dancers44% 25–50 12.5%<25
Hamilton et al1893 Male Middle Eastern athletes91%<50
Halliday et al1941 US college athletes (18 men/23 women)60%<80 3%<50
Lovell2018 Female Elite Australian gymnasts83%<75 33%<50
Morton et al2120 Male professional soccer players65%<50
Bescos-Garcia and Rodriguez-Guisado2221 Professional male Spanish team basketball players57%<50
Close et al2361 Professional male athletes from a variety of sports (Soccer, Rugby and Jockeys)26%<50 35%<30
Wilson et al2436 Professional male jockeys31%<50 37%<30
  • Data are provided in SI units (nmol/l). For conversion to ng/ml divide by 2.496.