Table 3

Summary of studies

Author (year)Sample sizeAgeSymptom durationStudy designCriterion standardTestConclusions
Kibler et al (2006)520 Patients
Control group: 10
42.75 (SD 16.0)
30.8 (SD 6.0)
UnclearControlled laboratory studyClinical and MRI diagnosis of labral injury, glenohumeral instability or impingement;
AND decreased supraspinatus strength;
AND scapular dyskinesis on clinical examination (% presence of scapular dyskinesis was not reported)
Scapular retraction test– Manual muscle testing of the supraspinatus muscle (Jobe/empty can test) in the scapular retraction position improves muscle force generation in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients
– The magnitude of increase in supraspinatus muscle force was less in this control group. This finding may reflect the lack of clinically detectable scapular dyskinesis and abnormal scapular protraction so that retraction would have less effect on strength
– Scapular positioning exerts its effects on increased strength independent of specific injury
Gumna et al (2009)434 Patients47.0
Range: 24–69
UnclearRadiographScapular dyskinesis; SICK scapula– Chronic type III AC dislocation causes scapular dyskinesis
Juul- Kristensen et al (2011)36TM: 38
Control: 23
44.0 (SD 11.1)
41.5 (SD 8.7)
More than 30 days within the previous yearReproducibility study; case–control studyQuestionnaire and clinical criteria1. Winging scapula during rest
2. Winging scapula during arm elevation
3. Winging scapula during arm elevation with a dumbbell
– Weakness or dysfunction of the scapula stabilising muscles in the trapezius myalgia group compared to the healthy controls was not present in the clinical variables: winging; delayed movement start; weakness of scapula stabilising muscles; and active proprioception/reposition
Odom et al (2001)34Shoulder dysfunction: 20
Control: 26
 30.0 (SD 11.1)Case controlPhysician diagnosis including: impingement or glenohumeral instability (8); rotator cuff tear (4); rotator cuff strain/tendinitis (3); glenohumeral dislocation or subluxation (4); labral tears (1)Lateral Scapular Slide Test (LSST)– LSST does not appear to be useful for identifying the injured side based on the value of the derived difference in scapular distance measurements- Sn and Sp of the LSST are poor and the LSST cannot be used to identify people with and without shoulder dysfunction
Shadmehr et al (2010)627 Patients
30 control
47.7 (SD 11.6)
33.5 (SD 11.7)
Cross-sectional, prospective, repeated-measure studyOrthopedic Surgeon Referral including: recurrent dislocation (4); supra spinatus tendonitis (10); biceps tendonitis (3); rotator cuff tear (4); scapular dyskinesis (1); rotator cuff strain (2); impingement syndrome (30)LSST– Diagnostic accuracy of the LSST was low, which questions the clinical importance of the test outcomes- Asymmetry is not necessarily an indicator of dysfunction
Struyf et al (2011)736 Patients
36 control
Symptomatic: 33.4 (SD 11.3)
Range 18–60
Asymptomatic: 33.1 (SD 10.9)
Range 18–56
Case–control studySelf-reported shoulder pain (Shoulder disability questionnaire)1. Winging
2. Tilting
3. Kinetic Medial Rotation Test
– No scapular positioning or motor control differences were found in athletes with or without shoulder pain in winging, tilting, or kinematic medial rotation test
Tate et al (2009)8104 Shoulder painValidation studySelf-reported shoulder pain (Penn Shoulder Scale)Scapular Dyskinesis Test– Validity of this test has been demonstrated by differences in scapular kinematics found between participants with and without obvious dyskinesis- There is no relationship between the presence of pain and scapular dyskinesis in the athletes included in the study
Tate et al (2008)1598 Shoulder impingement
46 non-impingement
20.8 (SD 2.8)Repeated measures; case controlShoulder impingement by clinical exam including 1 positive impingement test (Neer, Hawkins-Kennedy, Jobe)Scapular Reposition Test– The presence of impingement did not affect strength gains with the SRT- Strength gains with scapular repositioning are not exclusive to those with symptoms or pathology- In athletes with shoulder impingement symptoms, nearly half demonstrate reduced pain with the SRT- The SRT is a simple clinical test that may potentially be useful to identify impairments related to shoulder pathology