Table 2

Summary of articles reporting on the diagnostic accuracy of OSTs for pathologies of the hip: impingement/labral/intra-articular tests

Test, authorsSubjectsAge (mean, SD)GenderPathologySymptom DurationSN/SP (95% CI)LR+/LR-QCriterion standard SN/SP (95% CI)Reliability
FABER Test – Intra-Articular Pathology
Maslowski et al3950 subjects60.2 years30 FVariable: labral tear; FAI, arthritic changes, AVNNR81 (57 to 96)/25 (9 to 48)1.1/0.727NRNR
Martin et al11105 subjects42, 15 years24 FVariable: labral tear, FAI, arthritic changes, dysplasia1.9 years (mean)60 (41 to 77)/18 (7 to 39)0.73/2.29MRA; 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72NR
Troelsen et al4018 subjectsRange 32 to 56 years16 FAll had previous peri-acetabular osteotomy; all had dysplasia; post-op: labral tearNR42 (NR)/75 (NR)1.7/0.779MRA; 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72NR
Scour Test
Maslowski et al3950 subjects60.2 years30 FVariable: labral tear; FAI, arthritic changes, AVNNR50 (26 to 74)/29 (12 to 51)0.70/1.727NRNR
Internal Rotation with Overpressure
Maslowski et al3950 subjects60.2 years30 FVariable: labral tear; FAI, arthritic changes, AVNNR91 (68 to 99)/18 (5 to 40)1.1/0.57NRNR
Resisted Straight Leg Raise Test
Maslowski et al3950 subjects60.2 years30 FVariable: labral tear; FAI, arthritic changes, AVNNR59 (34 to 82)/32 (14 to 55)0.87/1.287NRNR
Impingement (FADDIR) Test – Labral Tear/Intra-Articular Pathology
Beaule et al4130 subjects40.7 years13 FFAI, labral tear> 3 months100/all (+) (FAI); 99 (NR)/25 (NR) (labral tear)NA/NA (FAI); 1.3/0.04 (labral tear)9MRA, 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72; CT scan, 92 to 97/87 to 100 78, 79NR
Keeney et al43101 subjects37.6 years71 FVariable: Labral tear; chondral defect; synovitis21.6 months99 (NR)/5 (NR)1.0/0.28MRA, 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72; Arthroscopy; NANR
Leunig et al4223 subjects40.2 years14 FVariable: Labral tear; dysplasia; arthritic changes3.5 years (mean)97 (NR)/13 (NR)1.1/0.237Surgery; NANR
Martin et al11105 subjects42.15 years24 FVariable: labral tear, FAI, arthritic changes, dysplasia1.9 years (mean)78 (59 to 89)/10 (3 to 29)0.86/2.29MRA, 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72NR
Sink et al4435 subjects16 years30 FVariable: FAI, labral tear; cartilage damage3 months to 3 years100/all (+) (FAI); 97 (NR)/4 (NR) (labral tear)NA/NA (FAI) 1.0/0.75 (labral tear)10MRI, 66 (59 to 73)/79 (67 to 91); MRA, 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72NR
Troelsen et al4018 subjectsRange 32–56 years16 FAll had previous peri-acetabular osteotomy; all had dysplasia; post-op: labral tearNR59 (NR)/75 (NR)2.4/0.559MRA, 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72NR
Impingement Provocation Test (Postero-Inferior Labrum Tear)
Leunig et al4223 subjects40, 2 years14 FVariable: Labral tear; dysplasia; arthritic changes3.5 years (mean)97 (NR)/11 (NR)1.1/0.277Surgery; NANR
Flexion-Internal Rotation Test
Chan et al4530 subjects41 years13 FVariable: Labral tear; AVNNR98 (NR)/8 (NR)1.1/0.2511MRA 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72NR
Chan et al4517 subjectsSubjects were a subset of above subjects (n=30)97 (NR)/25 (NR)1.3/0.1211Arthroscopy; NANR
Hase and Ueo4610 subjects28.7 years7 FLabral tear2.9 years (mean)94 (NR)/13 (NR)1.1/0.468Arthroscopy; NANR
Petersilge et al4710 subjects38.4 years5 FVariable: labral tear, dysplasia, ganglion cystNR94 (NR)/17 (NR)1.1/0.359Arthroscopy; NANR
Internal Rotation-Flexion-Axial Compression Test
Narvani et al4818 subjects30.5, 8.5 years5 FLabral tearNR75 (19 to 99)/43 (18 to 72)1.3/0.588MRA 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74) 72NR
Thomas Test
McCarthy and Busconi4959 subjects37 years32 FVariable: labral tear, synovitis, loose bodies, arthritic changesNR89 (NR)/92 (NR)11.1/0.1210Arthroscopy; NANR
  • ARS, acetabular rim syndrome; AVN, avascular necrosis; F, female; OST, orthopaedic special tests; FABER, flexion, abduction, external rotation test; FADDIR, flexion-adduction-internal rotation impingement test; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR-, negative likelihood ratio; MRA, magnetic resonance angiogram; NA, not applicable; NR, not reported; Q, Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies scores (QUADAS); SN, sensitivity (%); SP, specificity (%).