Table 4

Comparison of psychological factors between athletes who have and have not returned to sport

StudyPsychological factorReturned-to-sport groupNot-returned-to-sport groupBetween-group comparison statisticReturn to sport rate (%)
Gobbi and Francisco20Motivation; mean (SD)16.04 (1.81)10.54 (3.99)*d=1.7865
Johnson21Perception of negative influence of injury on present life situation (Y:N)0 : 55 : 2*Risk ratio (95% CI)=3.5 (1.1 to 11.3)42
Langford et al22Confidence, emotions, risk appraisal; mean (SD)72.05 (16.25)58.61 (18.34)*d=1.1551
Webster et al24Confidence, emotions, risk appraisal; mean (SD)70.7 (18.6)46.5 (23.2)*d=0.5540
Langford et al22Emotions; mean (SD)4.73 (23.73)18.02 (25.05)d=0.7851
  • *Significant difference between returned to sport group and not returned to sport group, p<0.05.

  • Total Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury score presented to represent confidence, emotions and risk appraisal factors in Langford et al22 and Webster et al.24