Author (year) | Participants | Design (number of training sessions, type, altitude and training content) | Groups | Statistically significant results (p<0.05) |
---|---|---|---|---|
Roskamm et al (1969)46 | Untrained | 24 over 4 weeks, cycling, 2250 m (N=6) or 3450 m (N=6; HH). 30 min aerobic training | IHT, N=12 | 10–17% VO_{2max} |
INT, N=6 | 6% VO_{2max} | |||
Terrados et al (1988)47 | Elite cyclists | 12–20 over 3–4 weeks, cycling, 2300 m (HH). Aerobic training and some intervals (15 s at 130% of aerobic peak power output) | IHT, N=4 | 33% PPO |
INT, N=4 | 22% PPO | |||
Martino et al (1995)48 | Elite swimmers | Swim sprints at 2800 m (HH) during 21 days at altitude. No details available | IHT, N=20 | −6% 100 m swim time, 34% PPO arm Wingate test |
INT, N=13 | NS changes | |||
Emonson et al (1997)49 | Untrained | 15 over 5 weeks, cycling, 2500 m (HH). 45 min at 70% of VO_{2max} | IHT, N=9 | 12% VO_{2max} |
INT, N=9 | 12% VO_{2max} | |||
Katayama et al (1998)50 | Untrained | 10 over 2 weeks, cycling, 4500 m (HH). 30 min at 70% of normoxic VO_{2max} level | IHT, N=7 | 7% VO_{2max} |
INT, N=7 | 5% VO_{2max} | |||
Bailey et al (2000)51 | Runners | 4 weeks at ∼2000 m (NH). Aerobic training, no details | IHT, N=18 | 15% VO_{2max} |
INT, N=14 | 5% VO_{2max} | |||
Geiser et al (2001)52 | Untrained | 30 over 6 weeks, cycling, 3850 m (NH). 30 min at 77–85% of maximum heart rate | IHT, N=18 | 11% VO_{2max}, 17% 30 min TT mean PO |
INT, H=15 | 9% VO_{2max}, 19% 30 min TT mean PO | |||
Karlsen et al (2002)53 | Cyclists | 9 over 3 weeks, cycling, 3000 m (NH). 120 min aerobic training | IHT, N=8 | NS changes in VO_{2max} or 30 min TT |
INT, N=8 | NS changes in VO_{2max} or 30 min TT | |||
Hendriksen and Meeuwsen (2003)54 | Triathletes | 10 over 10 days, cycling, 2500 m (HH). 105 min aerobic training | IHT, N=8 | 5% PPO cycling Wingate test |
INT, N=8 | NS increase | |||
Truijens et al (2003)55 | Swimmers | 15 over 5 weeks, swimming, 2500 m (NH). 12.5 min >100% VO_{2max} (30 s or 60 s bouts) | IHT, N=8 | NS changes |
INT, N=8 | 6% VO_{2max} | |||
Ventura et al (2003)56 | Cyclists | 18 over 6 weeks, cycling, 3200 m (NH). 30 min aerobic training | IHT, N=7 | NS changes in VO_{2max} or 10 min TT |
INT, N=5 | NS changes in VO_{2max} or 10 min TT | |||
Morton and Cable (2005)16 | Team-sport players | 12 over 4 weeks, cycling, 2750 m (NH). 10×1 min at 80% of 2 min PPO | IHT, N=8 | 8% cycling Wingate test PPO, 7% VO_{2max} |
INT, N=8 | 6.5% cycling Wingate test PPO, 8% VO_{2max} | |||
Roels et al (2005)57 | Cyclists and triathletes | 14 over 7weeks, cycling, 3000 m (NH). 6–8×2–3 min at 100% of aerobic PPO | IHT, N=11 | 4% 10 min TT mean PO |
IHIT, N=11 | 9% VO_{2max}, 5% 10 min TT mean PO | |||
INT, N=11 | 5% 10 min TT mean PO | |||
Roels et al (2007)58 | Cyclists and triathletes | 15 over 3 weeks, cycling, 3000 m (NH). 9×60 min at 60% VO_{2max} and 36 min with intervals of 2 min at 100% aerobic PPO (2 min bouts) | IHT, N=10 | 7% aerobic PPO |
INT, N=9 | 7% aerobic PPO, 8% 10 min TT mean PO | |||
Dufour et al (2006)59 | Runners | 12 over 6 weeks, running, 3000 m (NH). 24–40 min <VO_{2max} | IHT, N=9 | 5% VO_{2max}, 35% T_{lim} at vVO_{2max} |
INT, N=9 | NS changes | |||
Hamlin et al (2010)22 | Cyclists and triathletes | 10 over 10 days, cycling, 3200–4400 m (NH). 90 min aerobic training followed by two 30 s Wingate tests | IHT, N=9 | 3% PO cycling Wingate test |
INT, N=7 | NS changes | |||
Lecoultre et al (2010)60 | Cyclists | 12 over 4 weeks, cycling, 3000 m (NH). 4×12–18 min at 100–120% of aerobic PPO, 4×30–48 min <VO_{2max} and 4×100 min aerobic training | IHT, N=7 | 7% 40 km TT mean PO |
INT, N=7 | 6% 40 km TT mean PO | |||
Mao et al (2011)61 | Active males | 25 over 5 weeks, cycling, 2750 m (NH). 30 min aerobic training | IHT, N=12 | 16% VO_{2max} |
INT, N=12 | 10% VO_{2max} | |||
Manimmanakorn et al (2013)23 | Female team-sport players | 15 over 5 weeks, knee flexion and extension, ∼4500 m (NH). 6 sets of low resistance knee extensions and flexions to failure with 30 s between sets | IHT, N=10 | 15% MVC3, 17% MVC30, 129% REPS201RM |
INT, N=10 | 86% REP201RM | |||
Holliss et al (2013)62 | Active males | 15 over 3 weeks, leg extension, 3000 m (NH). 10×60–70 s intense exercise with 20–30 s passive recovery. One leg IHT, the other leg INT | IHT, N=9 | 25% leg extension, incremental T_{lim} |
INT, N=9 | 27% leg extension, incremental T_{lim} | |||
Puype et al (2013)63 | Moderately trained cyclists | 18 over 6 weeks, cycling, 3000 m (NH). 4–9 sprints of 30 s interspersed with 4.5 min recovery at 50 W | RSH, N=10 | 6% sprint PO, 6% VO_{2max}, 6% 10 min PO, 7% LT4 |
RSN, N=10 | 5% sprint PO, 6% VO_{2max}, 6% 10 min PO, NS | |||
CON, N=10 | NS changes | |||
Galvin et al (2013)64 | Rugby players | 12 over 4 weeks, treadmill running, 3500 m (NH). 10 sprints of 6 s interspersed with 30 s recovery | RSH, N=15 | 33% Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery 1 test performance |
RSN, N=15 | 14% Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery 1 test performance | |||
Faiss et al (2013)65 | Moderately trained cyclists | 8 over 4 weeks, cycling, 3000 m (NH). 3×5 all-out 10 s sprints interspersed with 20 s recovery at 120 W | RSH, N=20 | 6% sprint PO, 38% completed sprints in RSA test |
RSH, N=20 | 7% sprint PO, no change in completed sprints | |||
CON, N=10 | NS changes |
This table is limited to investigations with a group training in hypoxia (IHT, IHIT or RSH) and a group training in normoxia (INT or RSN). CON group without training present in two studies. Altitude described as either HH or NH. A significant difference between groups is shown in italics (p<0.05).
CON, control group; HH, hypobaric hypoxia; IHT, intermittent hypoxic training; IHIT, intermittent hypoxia interval training; INT, intermittent training in normoxia; LT4, power output corresponding to 4 mmol blood lactate; MVC3, peak maximum voluntary contraction in 3 s; MVC30, area under the peak 30 s maximal voluntary contraction curve; NH, normobaric hypoxia; NS, non-significant; PO, power output; PPO, peak power output; REPS201RM, repetitions at 20% of 1 repetition maximal load; RSA, repeated sprint ability test to exhaustion; RSH, repeated sprint training in hypoxia; RSN, repeated sprint training in normoxia; TT, time trial; T_{lim}, time to exhaustion; VO_{2max}, maximal oxygen uptake; vVO_{2max}, velocity associated with VO_{2max}.