Table 2

Knowledge gaps identified in general concussion knowledge of coaches (n=519) and trainers (n=384) from community Australian Football and Rugby League

StatementsResponses n (%)
Strongly disagreeDisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly agree
There is a higher risk of long-term problems if someone has a second concussion before recovering from the first one
 Coach3 (0.6)2 (0.4)28 (5.4)201 (38.7)285 (54.9)
 Trainer2 (0.5)2 (0.5)6 (1.6)134 (34.9)240 (62.5)
People who have had one concussion are more likely to have another concussion
 Coach11 (2.1)125 (24.1)150 (28.9)179 (34.5)54 (10.4)
 Trainer6 (1.6)93 (24.2)115 (29.9)126 (32.8)44 (11.5)
Symptoms of concussion can last for several weeks
 Coach3 (0.6)29 (5.6)43 (8.3)322 (62.0)122 (23.5)
 Trainer8 (2.1)11 (2.9)20 (5.2)235 (61.2)110 (28.6)
Symptoms of concussion are usually gone after 10–14 days
 Coach11 (2.1)107 (20.6)121 (23.3)270 (52.0)10 (1.9)
 Trainer7 (1.8)84 (21.9)83 (21.6)200 (52.1)10 (2.6)
Concussions can sometimes lead to emotional problems
 Coach13 (2.5)39 (7.5)153 (29.5)270 (52.0)44 (8.5)
 Trainer6 (1.6)26 (6.8)79 (20.6)222 (57.8)51 (13.3)
Younger players (under the age of 18) typically take longer to recover from a concussion than adults
 Coach8 (1.5)152 (29.3)268 (51.6)79 (15.2)12 (2.3)
 Trainer8 (2.1)125 (32.6)163 (42.4)64 (16.7)24 (6.3)
Players with a concussion should not be allowed to play until they have been assessed and cleared by a doctor
 Coach10 (1.9)17 (3.3)20 (3.9)181 (34.9)291 (56.1)
 Trainer7 (1.8)6 (1.6)9 (2.3)96 (25.0)266 (69.3)
To be diagnosed with a concussion, you have to be knocked unconscious
 Coach10 (1.9)12 (2.3)10 (1.9)244 (47.0)243 (46.8)
 Trainer12 (3.1)5 (1.3)5 (1.3)162 (42.2)200 (52.1)
A concussion can only occur if there is a direct hit to the head
 Coach11 (2.1)73 (14.1)29 (5.6)258 (49.7)148 (28.5)
 Trainer11 (2.9)40 (10.4)17 (4.4)184 (47.9)132 (34.4)
StatementResponses n (%)
Strongly agreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly disagree
Being knocked unconscious always causes permanent damage to the brain
 Coach11 (2.1)67 (12.9)122 (23.5)253 (48.7)66 (12.7)
 Trainer10 (2.6)38 (9.9)84 (21.9)199 (51.8)53 (13.8)
After a concussion occurs, brain scans (eg, CT scan, MRI) typically show damage (eg, bruise, blood clot) to the brain
 Coach22 (4.2)187 (36.0)192 (37.0)109 (21.0)9 (1.7)
 Trainer14 (3.6)128 (33.3)124 (32.3)105 (27.3)13 (3.4)
Elite football players are more likely to suffer a concussion than community level players
 Coach9 (1.7)23 (4.4)21 (4.0)239 (46.1)227 (43.7)
 Trainer6 (1.6)18 (4.7)30 (7.8)177 (46.1)153 (39.8)
There are few risks to long-term health and well-being from multiple concussions
 Coach20 (3.9)69 (13.3)43 (8.3)209 (40.3)178 (34.3)
 Trainer27 (7.0)54 (14.1)26 (6.8)138 (35.9)139 (36.2)
Wearing headgear can help to prevent a concussion
 Coach51 (9.8)222(42.8)77 (14.8)128 (24.7)41 (7.9)
 Trainer27 (7.0)133 (34.6)68 (17.7)100 (26.0)56(14.6)
Players with a concussion can start normal training once they are symptoms free
 Coach35 (6.7)231 (44.5)73 (14.1)148 (28.5)32 (6.2)
 Trainer20 (5.2)148 (38.5)41 (10.7)128 (33.3)47 (12.2)
  • Correct statements scores ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) and higher scores reflected accurate knowledge. Incorrect statements scores were reverse coded.

  • GCK, general concussion knowledge.