Table 2

Level of certainty (high–low) definitions used for risk assessment as previously defined by Sawaya et al20 and modified by Posthumus et al17

Level of certaintyDefinition
HighThe available evidence includes consistent results from level I studies. These studies provide a good estimate of risk and are unlikely to be strongly affected by future studies
ModerateThe available evidence includes sufficient evidence to determine that there is risk associated with the injury, but confidence in the estimate is constrained by factors such as the sample size and quality of studies, as well as inconsistency of findings across individual studies. As more information becomes available, the magnitude of risk could change or even alter the conclusion
LowThe available evidence is insufficient to assess risk. Evidence is insufficient because of the limited number or size of studies, and inconsistency of findings across individual studies. More information may allow an estimation of risk