Table 1

Division 1 football players

Exertional deathsNumber of participantsRisk of death per 1000 athlete-years*Risk difference per 1000 athlete-years†Relative risk‡
All ethnicities
 SCT positive541341.2101.17737§
 SCT negative41233130.033
Black athletes
 SCT positive540241.2431.18622
 SCT negative3534640.056
Non-black athletes
 SCT positive01100−0.0150
 SCT negative1688490.015
  • *Risk=Deaths/number of athlete-years.

  • †Risk difference=(Risk in SCT positive)—(Risk in SCT negative).

  • ‡Relative risk=(Risk in SCT positive)/(Risk in SCT negative).

  • §We do not recommend making this calculation. See text for explanation.

  • SCT, sickle cell trait.