Table 1

Patient characteristics

 Return to sport rate (%)Variables associated with return to sportVariables not associated with return to sport
LiteratureLevel of evidence57/ risk of bias55Total patientsMean age (years)Graft typePreinjury athletic participationPatient follow-upPreinjury levelModified levelDid not returnKnee impairment or functionalPsychologicalKnee impairment or functionalPsychological
Overall1574 (67% M/33% F)27.3*378 PT/867 HS/329 NR†50.732.917.2    
Ardern et al584/high503 (68% M/32% F)27.2503 HSCompetitive1 year33.433.633.0LSI ≥85% hop testsIKDC grade
Arvidsson et al594/high87 (97% M/3% F)25.387 PTNR7.9 years25.366.78.0Higher quadriceps torqueHamstring torque
Baltaci614/high15 (gender NR)29.6NRRecreational1.5–2 yearsNRNRNRFaster 6 m shuttle run test, higher hamstring torqueLSI on hop tests, Lysholm Knee Score, step-hop test, vertical jump, 10-step climb test
Barrett and Mackenney604/high45 (73% M/27% F)26.445 PTCompetitive and recreational3 years53.331.115.6Lower knee effusion and painAnterior knee laxity
Gobbi et al632/high60 (67% M/33% F)30.4*60 HSAt least recreational1–3 years10000Higher preoperative psychovitality
Gobbi and Francisco624/high100 (67% M/33% F)2850 PT/50 HSAt least recreational2 years65.024.011.0Higher Marx Activity ScoreHigher preoperative psychovitalityLysholm Knee Score, IKDC subjective form score, IKDC grade
Heijne et al642/high64 (55% M/45% F)30.132 PT/32 HSNR1 yearNRNRNRHigher preoperative quadriceps torquePreoperative knee extension ROM, preoperative anterior knee laxity, preinjury sports activity level
Kvist et al484/high62 (55% M/45% F)2755 PT/7 HSNR3–4 years53.0NRNRLower TSK score
Langford et al684/high87 (63% M/37% F)27.54 PT/83 HSCompetitive6 months; 1 year51.0NRNRHigher ACL-RSILSI on hop tests, postoperative anterior knee laxityERAIQ
Lee et al64/high64 (95% M/5% F)24.864 HSCompetitive and recreational5 years43.826.529.7Higher Lysholm Knee Score, higher IKDC subjective form score, IKDC Grade A and B
Lee S et al672/high42 (88% M/12% F)30.3*42 HSNR2 yearsNRNRNRHigher postoperative tibial IR, ER, and total rotation at 0° of knee extension
Lentz et al692/high94 (64% M/36% F)22.4PT and HSAt least recreational1 year55.0NRNRLower knee effusion, fewer episodes of instability, lower pain, higher quadriceps torque-body weight ratio, higher IKDC subjective form scoreLower TSK scorePostoperative anterior knee laxity, postoperative knee extension and flexion ROM, LSI quadriceps strength
Mikkelsen et al704/high44 (77% M/23% F)24.1*44 PTRecreational (1 no participation)2.5 years38.652.39.1Higher quadriceps torque
Thomee et al492/high38 (66% M/34% F)29.712 PT /26 HSAt least recreational1 yearNRNRNRHigher preoperative K-SES
Tripp et al652/high49 (55% M/45% F)29.2 49 PTAt least recreational1 yearNRNRNRLower TSK scoreNegative affect, catastrophising
Webster et al662/high220 (56% M/44% F)29.2NRAt least recreational1 year39.529.131.4Higher ACL-RSI
  • *Weighted mean age.

  • †The overall ‘NR’ in the graft type column includes the 94 patients in the Lentz et al68 study, as specific numbers for patients with each graft type were not provided.

  • Return to preinjury sport defined as patients achieving the same activity level or same sport postsurgery as their preinjury activity level. Modified sports activity defined as patients achieving a lesser activity level as compared with their preinjury activity level. No return to sport defined as patients unable to participate in any athletic activity.

  • ACL-RSI, anterior cruciate ligament-return to sport after injury scale; CKC, closed kinetic chain; ER, external rotation; ERAIQ, Emotional Responses of Athletes to Injury Questionnaire; F, female; HS, hamstring tendon; IKDC, International Knee Documentation Committee; IR, internal rotation; K-SES, Knee Self Efficacy Scale; LSI, limb symmetry index; M, male; NR, not reported; OKC, open kinetic chain; PT, patellar tendon; ROM, range of motion; TSK, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia.