Table 4

Results of the unadjusted and adjusted (n=242) Cox regression models for the variables tested

Unadjusted modelAdjusted model
IndicatorUnit/qualifierHRp ValueHR95% CI
Main exposure of interest
 Type of shoesHard-SS is ref.0.9200.731*
Participants’ characteristics
 SexMale is ref.1.0370.880*
 BMI1 kg/m2 increase1.0770.057*†1.1261.033 to 1.227
 Previous injury‡No (previous injury) is ref.1.9960.005†1.7351.037 to 2.902
 Running experience§Years1.0040.690
 Regular runner (previous 12-months)Non-regular is ref.0.293<0.001*†0.4220.228 to 0.779
Sport participation pattern
 Sessions with SSPercentage of total sessions1.0170.073†
 Other sportsh/week0.7750.010†0.7020.561 to 0.879
 Running frequencySessions/week0.6930.022†
 Weekly running volumeh/week0.7750.038†
 Weekly mean distancekm/week0.9740.027†
 Mean session durationMin0.9940.336
 Mean session intensityau1.3790.015†1.3961.040 to 1.874
 Mean speedkm/h0.9110.299
 Run hard surfacePercentage of total sessions1.0020.663
  • *Variable used for sample stratification included in the first block (Enter); total volume of exposure 5723.4 h.

  • †Variables with p value >0.25 included in the multivariate model (forward LR).

  • ‡5 missing data.

  • §2 missing data.

  • au, arbitrary unit; BMI, body mass index; SS, study shoes.