Table 4

Descriptive details on all participants and divided by total LEAF-Q score

All (n=45)LEAF-Q ≥8 (n=28)LEAF-Q <8 (n=17)p Value
Age (years)26.6±5.426.0±5.627.5±5.10.35
Height (cm)169.3±0.05168.7±0.06170.2±0.050.38
Weight (kg)58.7±6.857.1±6.461.2±7.00.05
BMI (kg/m2)20.5±1.820.0±1.721.1±1.90.06
Body fat (%)20.2±3.419.2±3.221.8±3.40.01
Whole body Z-score0.1 (−0.7–0.4)−0.1 (−0.7–0.5)0.2 (−0.7–0.4)0.91
Lumbar spine Z-score−0.7 (−1.6 to −0.1)−0.8 (−1.6 to −0.2)−0.7 (−1.3–0.3)0.39
EA (kJ/kg FFM/day)161±58156±55169±640.49
Energy balance (%)86±1985±1889±210.46
 DT-score4.0 (1.0–9.0)4.0 (1.5–9.0)4.0 (0.0–9.5)0.16
 BD-score5.5 (2.0–10.5)5.0 (3.0–10.0)6.0 (2.0–17.0)0.29
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 Supine systolic113.0±10.6111.5±11.1115.4±9.70.24
 Supine diastolic68.2±9.566.1±8.471.4±10.50.07
 Standing systolic111.7±10.5109.2±9.9115.4±10.50.06
 Standing diastolic72.3±9.170.4±8.975.1±9.00.10
T3 (ng/mL)1.61±0.271.54±0.221.74±0.290.01
Cortisol (nmol/L)453±135477±142412±1150.13
Leptin (pg/mL)2.9 [1.6–4.1]2.0 [1.4–3.2]4.1 [1.4–5.3]<0.01
(pg/mL/kg FM)0.24±0.170.21±0.190.29±0.310.02
Glucose (mmol/L)4.1±0.54.0±0.54.3±0.30.02
Exercise (h/week)11.3±4.311.7±4.810.6±3.20.39
VO2peak (l/min)3.2±0.43.2±0.43.2±0.40.78
VO2peak (mL/kg/min)55.7 [48.2–58.8]56.7 [49.2–61.2]52.4 [46.5–56.0]0.13
  • Data are presented as mean±SD for normal distributed data and as median and IQR (25–75) for skewed data. Student's paired t test was used after skewed data were log transformed.

  • BD-score, body dissatisfaction score; BMI, body mass index (kg/m2); DT-score, drive for thinness score; EA, energy availability, EDI-3, Eating Disorder Inventory-3; FM, fat mass; LEAF-Q, Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire; T3: triiodothyronine; VO2peak: maximal oxygen uptake, ¤ determined by DEXA scan.