Table 1

Incidence studies in general populations of atheltes

AuthorYearCountryStudy designCase identificationDenominatorExertional deaths of all?SCD or SCA+SCDYears studiedPopulationIncidenceNumber of yearsAge rangeMean ageNumber of cardiac deaths
Van Camp211996USARetrospective cohortNational Center for Catastrophic Injury Research and media database17 most popular sports, participants in NCAA, NFHS, NAIA, NAJC, added together, conversion factor to account multisport athletes used ‘based on discussions with representatives from the national organisations’. 1.9 for high school and 1.2 for collegeExertionalSCD1983–1993College athletes and high school1:300 0001017–2417100
Maron261996USARetrospective cohortUS Registry for Sudden Death in Athletes‘Unavoidable selection bias and certainly significantly underestimate’AllSCD1985–1995Athletes_1012–4017134
Maron252003USARetrospective cohortUS Registry for Sudden Death in AthletesNot possible b/c of selection biasAllSCD1985–2000Athletes_259–4017286
Corrado222003ItalyProspective cohort studyMandatory death reportingRegistered Italian athletesAllSCD1979–1999Athletes and young people1:47 600 athlete 1:142 900 young people2012 –352355
Maron82009USARetrospective cohortUS Registry for Sudden Death in AthletesEstimated 10.7 million athletes <39 participating in sports during 2000–2006 (method not described)AllSCA+SCD1980–2006Athletes1:163 934278–3918690
Holst62010DenmarkRetrospective cohortReview of death certificates—then autopsies if available—15 sports related SCD (SrSCD)Denmark population statisticsAll and sports relatedSCD2000–2006Athletes and young people1:82 645 SrSCD 1:26 595 general pop712 –3526 15 SrSCD 470 SCD
Steinvil232011IsraelRetrospective cohortRetrospective review of two Israeli newspapers by two media researchers45 000 registered competitive athletes in 2009, extrapolated the growth of the Israeli population age10–40 since 1985 based on that figure and allowed for a presumed doubling of the sporting populationAllSCD1985—19 971 998—2009Athletes1st—1:393 702nd—1:37 5932412–442424
  • SCA, sudden cardiac arrest; SCD, sudden cardiac death.