Table 2

Abnormal history, physical examination and ECG in the study population and test required for each abnormality

Abnormal findingNumber of atheletes (%)Test for each abnormality
Family history3 (0.3)
 Fatal aortic dissection father2 (0.2)E
 Bicuspid aortic valve father and brother1 (0.1)E
Personal history11 (1.0)
 Atypical angina5 (0.5)Ex
 Palpitations5 (0.5)E, Ex, H
 Syncope of undetermined origin1 (0.1)E, Ex, H
Physical examination15 (1.4)
 Heart murmur9 (0.8)E
 Hypertension6 (0.6)BPM
ECG42 (3.9)
 Negative T-waves21 (2.0)E +/− CMR
  Minor (≥1 mm)/deep (≥2 mm)17 (1.6)/4 (0.4)
 Ventricular premature beats6 (0.6)E, Ex, H
 Atrial premature beats5 (0.5)E, Ex, H
 Left axis deviation5 (0.5)E, Ex
 WPW ECG-pattern3 (0.3)E, Ex, H
 Prolonged QT interval2 (0.2)E, Ex, H
 Complete RBBB1 (0.1)E, Ex
 Right axis deviation1 (0.1)E
 Left atrial enlargement1 (0.1)E
 Abnormal Q-waves1 (0.1)E
  • Selected athletes had more than one abnormal finding. More tests may be required per abnormal finding depending on the clinical circumstance.

  • BPM, 24 h blood pressure monitoring; CMR, Cardiac MRI; E, echocardiogram; Ex, exercise stress test; H, 24 h Holter monitoring; RBBB, Right bundle branch block; WPW, Wolff-Parkinson-White.