Table 3

Change in secondary outcome measures following treatment

Control group*
Median change score (range)
Treatment group
Median change score (range)
ClearedNot clearedClearedNot cleared
n=1n=12n=11n=4
Neck pain (/10)−4−1.5 (−8, 3)−3 (−5, 0)−1 (−5, 0)
Headache (/10)−7−2.5 (−7, 1)−3 (−8, 0)−2.5 (−4, 0)
Dizziness (/10)−5−1.5 (−6, 0)−2 (−7, 0)−1 (−4, 1)
ABC Scale score (%)3012.75 (0, 55)8 (0, 52)19.5 (−6, 43.5)
DHI score (/100)†−48−21 (−58, 2)−24 (−50, −6)−13 (−16, −8)
Percentage now (/100)3520 (−17, 50)20 (5, 60)20 (−20, 23)
Total symptom (/22)−15−8.5 (−22, 3)−12 (−22, 0)−5.5 (−11, −2)
BES (/30)105 (−6, 18)2 (−9, 14)−3.5 (−9, 5)
SAC (/30)10 (4, 5)1.5 (−2, 7)0 (−2, 7)
SCAT 2 (/100)‡2612 (−5, 42)18 (10, 30)8.5 (−9, 11)
DVA (lines lost)−2−1 (−4, 2)−1 (−5, 3)−0.5 (−4, 1)
FGA (/30)31 (2, 6)1 (−1, 5)3 (1, 5)
CFE (seconds)195.5 (−8, 19)7 (0, 32)2.5 (−6, 6)
MSQ (/40)−20−7.25 (−22, 0)−10 (−20, −5)−1.75 (−13, 4.5)
JPE test (/3 trials)
 Right−20 (−1, 3)−1 (−3, 2)0 (−3, 2)
 Left−20 (−3, 1)−1 (−3, 3)−1 (−1, 0)
  • *One participant in the control group who was not cleared did not attend the follow-up session and is not included in this analysis.

  • †Individuals who were medically cleared had a greater improvement in score than those who were not (p=0.019).

  • ‡Individuals who were medically cleared had a greater improvement in score than those who were not (p=0.0088).

  • ABC Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale; BES, Balance Examination score; CFE, Cervical Flexor Endurance; DHI, Dizziness Handicap Index; DVA, Dynamic Visual Acuity; FGA, Functional Gait Assessment; JPE, Joint Position Error; MSQ, Motion Sensitivity Quotient; SAC, Standardised Assessment of Concussion; SCAT2, Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2.