Table 3

Comparison of personal and family history responses in student athletes versus student non-athletes before and after review with a physician

PPE-4 personal and family history
 Total positive (%) before physician evaluationTotal positive (%) after physician evaluation
Student athletes (1071)Student non-athletes (268)p ValueStudent athletes (1071)Student non-athletes (268)p Value
≥1 Positive personal or family history response714 (67)202 (75)<0.01324 (30)114 (42)<0.001
Personal history questions
Have you ever had discomfort, pain, tightness or pressure in your chest during exercise?283 (26)94 (35)<0.01155 (14)61 (23)<0.001
Do you get light-headed or feel more short of breath than expected during exercise?245 (23)96 (36)<0.0001140 (13)68 (25)<0.0001
Do you get more tired or short of breath more quickly than your friends during exercise?185 (17)110 (41)<0.000196 (9)69 (26)<0.0001
Have you ever passed out or nearly passed out DURING or AFTER exercise?131 (12)36 (13)0.59100 (9)26 (10)0.85
Does your heart ever race or skip beats (irregular beats) during exercise?106 (10)43 (16)<0.0168 (6)32 (12)<0.01
Has a doctor ever ordered a test for your heart? (For example, an ECG/EKG, echocardiogram)89 (8)27 (10)0.3656 (5)23 (8.5)0.04
Has a doctor ever told you that you have any heart problems?74 (7)25 (9)0.1850 (5)20 (7.5)0.07
Have you ever had an unexplained seizure?12 (1)7 (3)0.068 (0.75)5 (2)0.09
Family history questions
Does anyone in your family have a heart problem, pacemaker or implanted defibrillator?261 (24)78 (29)0.11118 (11)47 (17)<0.01
Has any family member or relative died of a heart problem or had any unexpected or unexplained sudden death before age 50 (including drowning, unexplained car accident or sudden infant death syndrome)?162 (15)49 (18)0.2086 (8)32 (12)0.04
Has anyone in your family had unexplained fainting, unexplained seizures or near drowning?95 (9)34 (13)0.0653 (5)23 (8.5)0.02
Does anyone in your family have a known cause of SCD?36 (3)10 (4)0.7728 (3)8 (3)0.74
  • PPE-4, Pre-participation Physical Evaluation 4th Edition; SCD, sudden cardiac death.