Table 6

Cardiac conditions identified

Primary outcomes (associated with sudden cardiac death)
 Wolff-Parkinson-White5 (0.4%)
Secondary outcomes (requiring further evaluation and/or medical follow-up)
 Blood pressure
  Elevated blood pressure22
  Elevated blood pressure+mild concentric LVH3
  Elevated blood pressure+mild subaortic septal thickening1
 Valvular abnormality
  Bicuspid aortic valve with mild aortic valve insufficiency2
  Bicuspid aortic valve3
  Mitral valve prolapse with mitral regurgitation1
  Myxomatous mitral valve1
  Mild pulmonic stenosis1
 Left ventricular abnormality
  Dilated left ventricular chamber; LVEDD (6.5 cm)*1
  Mild concentric LVH (1.2 cm)1
  Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (1.2 cm)†1
  Abnormal septal wall motion1
  Small ventricular septal defect1
 Coronary arteries
  Possible dilated left main coronary artery+chest pain‡1
  History of Kawasaki's disease; possible enlarged right coronary artery1
 Great vessels
  Prominent ascending aorta1
  Dilated main pulmonary artery1
 Personal history or symptoms
  History of Kawasaki's disease and atrial septal defect1
  Decrease in exercise tolerance, chest pain and racing heart1
 Family history
  Family history of LQTS (sister)1
  Family history of CPVT (father)1
  Family history of early sudden death1
  Low atrial tachycardia1
  Inappropriate sinus tachycardia1
Total52 (3.9%)
  • *Sixteen-year-old male wrestler with chest pain and elevated blood pressure; normal ECG; LVEDD 6.5 cm with low normal systolic function on echocardiography.

  • †Fifteen-year-old male baseball player with an abnormal ECG (Q waves); IVS thickness 1.2 cm, LVPW thickness 1.0; LVEDD 5.2; follow-up echocardiogram was normal showing a prominent moderator band which may have accounted for the septal hypertrophy.

  • ‡Seventeen-year-old male football player; normal ECG; an otherwise normal echocardiogram.

  • CPVT, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; IVS, intraventricular septal; LQTS, long QT syndrome; LVEDD, left ventricular end diastolic diameter; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; LVPW, left ventricular posterior wall.