Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Treatment group
Median (range) or percentage (%)
Control group Median (range) or percentage (%)
Age15 years (12–27)15 years (13–30)
Sex11 male, 4 female7 male, 9 female
Previous concussion55.3% (8/15)75% (12/16)
Neck pain93.33% (14/15)87.5% (14/16)
Headache93.33% (14/15)93.75% (15/16)
Dizziness86.33% (13/15)82.75% (13/16)
Vestibular findings80% (12/15)87.5% (14/16)
Cervical findings100% (15/15)100% (16/16)
Time since injury53 days (8–276)47 days (31–142)
ABC Scale score80% (40–95)85% (45–100)
DHI score (/100)46 (6–84)42 (0–66)
 Physical (/24)10 (0–18)10 (0–24)
 Functional (/36)14 (4–36)18 (0–28)
 Emotional (/40)12 (2–30)14 (0–22)
Percentage now (/100)80% (40–95)70% (50–97)
BES score (/30)19 (4–30)19 (4–28)
SAC score (/30)27 (16–29)26 (23–30)
SCAT2 score (/100)71 (52–96)70 (47–92)
Neck pain (/10)3 (0–7)3 (0–9)
Headache (/10)4 (0–8)4 (0–9)
Dizziness (/10)3 (0–8)5 (0–8)
DVA (lines lost)3 (0–7)3 (1–5)
FGA (/30)27 (17–30)27 (24–30)
CFE (seconds)14 (6–27)15 (8–28)
  • ABC Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale; BES, Balance Examination score; CFE, Cervical Flexor Endurance; DHI, Dizziness Handicap Inventory; DVA, Dynamic Visual Acuity; FGA, Functional Gait Assessment; SAC, Standardised Assessment of Concussion; SCAT2, Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2.