Table 1

Results of study outcomes by group

GroupPretrainingPost-trainingDetrainingp Value for group effectp Value for time effectp Value for interaction (group×time) effect
Primary outcomes
 FVC (l/min)Control1.90 (0.33)1.85 (0.32)1.92 (0.32)0.3600.6840.156
Training2.23 (0.27)2.34 (0.29)2.28 (0.28)
 FEV1 (l/s)Control1.57 (0.26)1.55 (0.26)1.59 (0.26)0.7330.7120.486
Training1.65 (0.19)1.74 (0.23)1.69 (0.24)
 PImax (mm Hg)Control69.5 (9.7)71.8 (10.0)66.7 (9.4)0.0330.001<0.001
Training68.3 (6.3)107.6 (8.4)103.2 (8.1)2=0.502, power=0.999)
 VO2peak(ml/kg/min)Control36.2 (2.1)35.6 (1.5)32.1 (1.4)0.4850.072<0.001
Training31.1 (0.9)38.0 (1.3)36.5 (1.2)2=0.508, power=1.000)
Secondary outcomes
 5RM leg press (kg)Control45.2 (4.7)43.9 (5.1)43.9 (5.4)0.002<0.001<0.001
Training62.5 (6.5)89.5 (9.3)88.6 (9.2)2=0.615, power=1.000)
 5RM bench press (kg)Control23.2 (2.9)21.6 (3.2)21.7 (3.6)0.018<0.001<0.001
Training26.4 (2.7)38.4 (3.2)35.9 (2.9)2=0.715, power=1.000)
 5RM lateral rowControl23.2 (3.0)22.0 (3.1)21.7 (3.6)0.009<0.001<0.001
Training30.5 (3.6)43.0 (4.2)35.9 (2.9)2=0.593, power=1.000)
 Body mass (kg)Control31.5 (4.6)32.4 (4.7)32.7 (4.5)0.0020.3550.342
Training36.4 (3.1)37.8 (3.2)38.3 (3.1)
 Fat mass (% of total)Control17.1 (1.8)17.2 (1.8)17.5 (1.9)0.8150.1590.023
Training18.4 (1.3)17.4 (1.2)17.5 (1.1)2=0.211, power=0.704)
 Fat-free mass (% of total)Control82.9 (1.8)82.8 (1.8)82.5 (1.9)0.8490.0770.001
Training81.6 (1.3)82.6 (1.0)82.5 (1.0)2=0.337, power=0.940)
  • Data are mean (SEM). Effect size (η2) and statistical power are reported for those significant p values of interaction (group×time) interaction effect.

  • 5RM, five-repetition maximum; FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume; PImax, maximal inspiratory muscle pressure; VO2peak, peak oxygen uptake.

  • Significant p values of interaction effect are in italics. See text for significant post-hoc comparisons within each group for those outcomes showing a significant interaction effect.