Table 1

Maxillofacial trauma in sport for different study types

SportStudy typeAuthor/number of participantsSport-related maxillofacial/dental injurySampling frameMouthguard use
BasketballInjury or treatment auditDeitch et al16 n=11451.2% National Basketball Association, 1% Womens National Basketball Association1996–2002Not reported
Epidemiological survey (self-reporting)Azodo et al8 n=15669.2%Previous year (unclear)Not reported
Frontera et al20 n=38850%Any sport-related trauma to date1%
Ma25 n=7742%Any sport-related trauma to dateNot reported
Field hockeyEpidemiological survey (self-reporting)Bolhuis et al10 n=27962%Self-report, ever been injured33%
FootballEpidemiological survey (oral examination)Gay-Escoda21 n=3023%2003–20060%
• Randell31 n=3426.5%1983Not reported
KarateInjury or treatment auditMcLatchie26 n=2952%1975Not reported
Ice hockeyEpidemiological survey(oral examination)Stuart et al36 n=28214.2% all head and neck injuriesOne seasonUnclear
Injury or treatment auditKuzuhara et al23 n=9413% of all injuries reported2002–2005Not reported
Pettersson and Lorentzon30 n=3762.2% all traumatic injuries1986–1990Not reported
Sane et al32 number unclear11.5% all traumatic injuriesUnclearNot reported
Multisports gamesEpidemiological survey (oral examination)Andrade et al7 n=12026.3%Any sport-related trauma to dateNot reported
RugbyInjury or treatment auditNeedleman et al1 n=27817.6% athletes attending the clinic2012 Olympic games32.7% all athletes presenting with trauma
Sharma et al33 n=3420.6% athletes attending the clinic2010 Commonwealth gamesNot reported
Soler Badia et al34 n=2661% athletes attending the clinic1992 Olympic GamesNot reported
Vougiouklakis et al38 n=6583% athletes attending the clinic2004 Olympic and Paralympic gamesNot reported
Yang et al39 n=7950.4% athletes attending the clinic2008 Olympic gamesNot reported
Epidemiological survey (self-reporting)Needleman et al1 n=27830%Self-report, ever been injured98% all athletes
Injury or treatment auditDorney17 n=2552%Unclear62% of all players who experienced trauma
Epidemiological survey (self-reporting)Chapman and Nasser12 n=10226.9–42.3%Any sport-related trauma to date79.2–84.6%
Davies et al13 n=28145%Any sport-related trauma to date24%
Kay et al22 n=6354%Any sport-related trauma to date63%
Muller-Bolla et al28 n=114029.6%Any sport-related trauma to date64%
Stokes and Chapman35 n=2147.6%Any sport-related trauma to date85.7
TaekwondoInjury or treatment auditBeis et al9 n=27393 per 1000 athlete exposures (oral and facial)1994/1995Not reported
WrestlingEpidemiological survey (oral examination)Persson and Kiliaridis29 n=5157.7% wrestlers
26.9% age-matched controls (non-athlete)
UnclearNot reported
WrestlingInjury or treatment auditFaye et al18 n=12563%Any sport-related trauma to date0%
  • Data is reported as proportion of athletes experiencing trauma unless described otherwise in the text. Data from audits and self-reported surveys describes incidence; data from epidemiological surveys with oral examination describes prevalence.