Table 2

Major joint injection efficacy

 Level of evidence
Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 5
GH joint3 studies: USGIs are more efficacious than LMGIs29 51 541 study: LMGIs are efficacious31
Hip joint1 study: USGIs are more efficacious than no injection333 studies: USGIs are efficacious,35 41 and pain reduction from injection predicts better surgical outcome59
Knee joint1 study: accurate injections are more efficacious than inaccurate injections483 studies: USGI less painful and more efficacious than LMGI5 56 571 study: LMGIs are efficacious31
SI joint1 study: USGIs are efficacious,34
1 study: USGI no better than LMGI18
Shoulder*2 studies: image-guided injections are more efficacious than LMGI55 58
1 study: no significant difference between USGI and LMGI efficacy6
1 study: USGI no better than LMGI53
  • GH, glenohumeral; LMGI, landmark-guided injection; SI, sacroiliac; USGI, ultrasound-guided injection.

  • *Shoulder refers to studies in which the “shoulder” was injected, but the location of the injection was not further specified