Table 8

Soft tissue injection accuracy

 Level of evidence
Level 1, mean (range) (%)Level 2, mean (range) (%)Level 3, mean (range) (%)Level 4, mean (range) (%)Level 5, mean (range) (%)
SA-SD bursaUSGI1001156591
LMGI82 (69–100)101 11578 (29–90) 17 69 91 93 95 105 110 123
BT sheathUSGI8799
LMGI2799
FFT sheathUSGI10089
LMGI
FET sheathUSGI85
(70–0)89 108
LMGI15108
ECUT sheathUSGI10089
LMGI
Obturator internusUSGI100118
LMGI
PiriformisUSGI9597USGIs are accurate (rate not reported)117USGIs with EMG assistance are 100% accurate88
LMGI
Pes anserinus bursaUSGI9298
LMGI1798
Popliteus tendon sheathUSGI92 (83–100) 116
LMGI
Achilles regionUSGI10071
LMGI
Peroneal tendon sheathUSGI10011310089
LMGI60113
FHL tendon sheathUSGI10071
LMGI
TP tendon sheathUSGI1007110089
LMGI
SPCUSGI100114
LMGI100114
DPCUSGI88114
LMGI90114
Sinus tarsiUSGI9080
LMGI3580
Morton's neuromaUSGI10094 104
LMGI–-
Bursa, tendon sheath, cyst, woundUSGIUSG aspirations are 100% accurate52
LMGI
  • BT, biceps tendon; DPC, deep posterior compartment; ECUT, extensor carpi ulnaris tendon; FET, finger extensor tendon; FFT, finger flexor tendon; FHL, flexor hallucis longus; LMGI, landmark-guided injection; SA-SD, subacromial-subdeltoid; SPC, superficial posterior compartment; TP, tibialis posterior; USGI, ultrasound-guided injection.