Table 9

Soft tissue injection efficacy

 Level of evidence
Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 5
SA-SD bursa4 studies: USGIs are more efficacious than LMGIs54 87 103 121
1 study: USGI produces more pain relief with local anaesthetic injection than LMGI100
1 study: USGI more efficacious than LMGI in some but not all outcome measures51
1 study: USGI more efficacious than oral steroids in some but not all outcome measures92
1 study: accurate injections are more efficacious than inaccurate injections93
2 studies: accurate injections no more efficacious than inaccurate injections91 105
Rotator cuff1 study: USG lavage and aspiration of calcific tendinopathy is efficacious124
Lateral elbow common extensor tendon1 study: USG needle tenotomy is efficacious112
DeQuervain's tenosynovitis1 study: USGIs more efficacious than LMGIs1061 study: USGI are efficacious111
Carpal tunnel syndrome3 studies: USGI more efficacious and less painful than LMGI85 109 122
Gluteus medius tendon1 study: USGIs are efficacious107
Baker's cyst1 study: USGI Baker's cyst aspiration and injection more efficacious than Baker's cyst aspiration and knee injection841 study: USG aspiration and injection are efficacious90
Plantar fascia1 study: no difference in efficacy between USGI, LMGI and SGI125
1 study: no difference in efficacy between USGI and LMGI, but less recurrence following USGI119
1 study: USGIs are efficacious120
Morton's neuroma2 studies: USGIs are efficacious94 104
FFT, FET, ECUT, TP tendon and peroneal tendon sheath1 study: USGIs are efficacious89
Patellar, Achilles, gluteus medius, ITB, hamstring, lateral elbow, rectus femoris1 study: USG needle tenotomies are efficacious102
Multiple upper and lower extremity tendons1 study: USG needle tenotomies with PRP injections are efficacious96
Postupper extremity amputation neuromas1 study: USGIs are efficacious88
  • ECUT, extensor carpi ulnaris tendon; FET, finger extensor tendon; FFT, finger flexor tendon; LMGI, landmark-guided injection; PRP, platelet rich plasma; SA-SD, subacromial-subdeltoid; SGI, scintigraphy-guided injection; TP, tibialis posterior; USG, ultrasound-guided; USGI, ultrasound-guided injection.