Table 1

Summary of the main study design details and data from the articles included in the meta-analysis which used cooling during exercise

Main effect for physiological and perceptual variables during exercise
ReferenceParticipantsProtocolAmbient conditionsCooling interventionEffect size (d)Area CooledCore tempSkin tempHeart rateRPETSSweat rate
Ansley et al34N=9 malesCE Texh @ 75% Embedded ImageO2maxTamb=27–29°C
rh=40–60%
WBGT=27°C
Head. Fan cooling with water mistingCap: 0.51↓*-↓*--
Kenny et al35N=10 malesTR Texh (or 120 min) @ 3 m/h wearing NBC suitTamb=35°C
rh=65%
WBGT=38°C
Torso. Ice vest worn under the NBC suitCap: 2.26-↓*↓*↓*↓*↓*-
Tyler et al36 (A)N=9 males90 min TR TTpreTamb=30°C
rh=50%
WBGT=29°C
Neck. Cooling collarPerf: 0.29↓***-↓* ↔
Tyler et al36 (B)N=8 males15 min TR TTpreTamb=30°C
rh=50%
WBGT=29°C
Neck. Cooling collarPerf: 0.23↓***-↓*
Tyler and Sunderland 38N=8 malesTR Texh @ 70% Embedded ImageO2maxTamb=32°C
rh=50%
WBGT=31°C
Neck. Cooling collarCap: 0.43↓***↑*-↑*
Tyler and Sunderland 37N=7 males90 min TR TTpreTamb=30°C
rh=50%
WBGT=29°C
Neck. Cooling collarPerf: 0.67↓***-
Tyler and Sunderland 37N=7 males90 min TR TTpreTamb=30°C
rh=50%
WBGT=29°C
Neck. Cooling collar (replaced at 30 and 60 min)Perf: 0.62↓***-
  • ↑Increased compared with control; ↓ decreased compared with control; ↔ no change compared with control;—not measured.

  • *p=<0.05; **p=<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • Cap, capacity; CE, cycle ergometer test; N, 6 rather than 5 because the manuscript by Tyler and Sunderland36 contains two separate investigations (A and B); perf, performance; RPE, rating of perceived exertion; temp, temperature; Texh, test to exhaustion; TR, treadmill test; TS, thermal sensation; TT, time-trial; TTpre, preloaded time-trial; WBGT, estimated wet bulb globe temperature.