Table 1

Multimodal rehabilitation programmes

ActivityInitial doseGoal
Aerobic exercise
 Daily walking at self-selected pace20 min/day60 min/day
Range of motion exercise
 Supine pelvic tilts to promote lumbar flexion/extension*20 repsFull, pain-free ROM
 Quadruped rocking into lumbar flexion/extension†20 repsFull, pain-free ROM
General trunk exercises
 Quadruped single leg lift*5 reps of 5 s10 reps of 5 s
 Quadruped contralateral arm and leg lift†10 reps of 5 s20 reps of 10 s
 Supine bridging*10 reps of 10 s20 reps of 5 s
 Supine bridging with leg lift†10 reps of 5 s20 reps of 10 s
 Supine abdominal curl-up†20 reps of 10 s40 reps of 10 s
 Side-lying horizontal side support (knees bent)†5 reps of 5 s10 reps of 10 s
 Side-lying horizontal side support (knees extended)†5 reps of 5 s20 reps of 10 s
Additional exercises in the specific trunk muscle exercise protocol
 Volitional LM contraction5 reps of 5 s10 reps of 10 s
 Abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre5 reps of 5 s10 reps of 10 s
 TrA/LM cocontraction5 reps of 5 s10 reps of 10 s
  • *From postoperative weeks 2–4.

  • †Starting after four postoperative weeks.

  • LM, lumbar multifidus; reps, repetitions; ROM, range of motion; TrA, transversus abdominis.