Table 1

Descriptive information: cross-sectional studies of physical impairments and/or activity limitations in people with and without FAI

Cross-sectional studies
Author, YearFAI groupControl groupComparability between groups*Impairment and/or activity limitation investigated
Asymptomatic with no FAIAsymptomatic FAI
Tannast, 2007n=31 (all types FAI)n=36NoneROM
27 (87%) males23 (64%) males
Mean±SD age=31.1±9.4 yearsMean±SD age=53.7±11.3 years
Recruited from outpatient clinicRecruited from contralateral hip THR patients
Diagnosis based on:Exclusion based on:
▸ Radiographic criteria (not specified)
▸ Clinical criteria (not specified)
▸ Radiographic OA > grade 1
▸ Centre edge angle <25°
▸ CT measurements (α angle <50°; femoral retroversion)
▸ Symptomatic (history of hip pain)
Kubiak-Langer, 2007n=28 (all types FAI)n=33NoneROM
24 (86%) males20 (61%) males
Mean±SD age=35.4±10.4 yearsMean±SD age=53±11.1 years
Recruited from outpatient clinicRecruited from contralateral hip THR patients
Diagnosis based on:Exclusion based on:
▸ Radiographic criteria (not specified)
▸ Physical findings (positive impingement test)
▸ Symptoms (not specified)
▸ Radiographic OA > grade 1
▸ Centre edge angle <25°
▸ CT measurements (α angle <50°; femoral retroversion)
▸ Symptomatic (history of hip pain, or hip surgery)
Kennedy, 2009an=17 (Cam FAI)n=14AgeROM
10 (59%) males8 (57%) malesGender
Mean±SD age=35.5±10.6 yearsMean±SD age=34.2±9.5 yearsBMI
Recruited from NRRecruited from NR
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view) (mean α angle >50.5°)
▸ Positive impingement test
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view) (spherical femoral heads)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury)
Kennedy, 2009bn=17 (Cam FAI)n=14AgeROM
10 (59%) males8 (57%) malesGender
Mean±SD age=35.5±10.6 yearsMean±SD age=34.2±9.5 yearsBMI
Recruited from NRRecruited from NR
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view) (mean α angle >50.5°)
▸ Positive impingement test
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view) (spherical femoral heads)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury, no hip pain)
Lamontagne, 2009n=15 (Cam FAI)n=11AgeSquatting ability
9 (60%) males6 (55%) malesGender
Mean±SD age=35.3±9.1 yearsMean±SD age=34.5±10.1 yearsBMIROM
Recruited from NRRecruited from NR
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view) (mean α angle >50.5°)
▸ Positive impingement test
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view) (spherical femoral heads)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury)
Nussbaumer, 2010n=15 (all types FAI)n=15AgeROM
8 (53%) males8 (53%) malesGender 
Mean±SD age=35±11 yearsMean±SD age=34±10 years
Recruited from patients with FAI treated at institutionRecruited from employees of institution
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs (criteria not specified)
▸ Clinical tests (not specified)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury)
Casartelli, 2011n=22 (all types FAI)n=22AgeStrength
8 (36%) males8 (36%) malesGenderNeuromuscular activity
Mean±SD age=32±9 yearsMean±SD age=32±9 yearsBMI
Recruited from patients with FAI scheduled for surgeryRecruited from NRActivity level
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs and MRI (criteria not specified)
▸ Clinical tests (not specified)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury, no hip pain)
Emara, 2011n=37 (all types FAI)n=37 (contralateral limb of FAI group)All (same participants)ROM
27 (73%) males27 (73%) males
Mean±SD age=33±5 yearsMean±SD age=33±5 years
Recruited from hospitalRecruited from hospital
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs (A/P and frog lateral) (α angle <60°)
▸ Unilateral hip pain secondary to FAI
▸ Positive impingement test
▸ Radiographs (A/P and frog lateral) (criteria not specified)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury)
▸ Negative impingement test
Casartelli, 2012n=15 (all types FAI)n=15AgeFatigue
6 (40%) males6 (40%) malesGenderNeuromuscular activity
Mean±SD age=31±10 yearsMean±SD age=31±9 yearsBMI
Recruited from patients with FAI scheduled for surgeryRecruited from NRActivity level
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Medical imaging diagnosis (criteria not specified)
▸ Clinical tests (not specified)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury, no hip pain)
Audenaert, 2012an=18 (Cam FAI)n=12n=12AgeROM
18 (100%) males12 (100%) males12 (100%) malesGender
Mean±SD age=24.7±NRMean±SD age=23.1±NRMean±SD age=22.6±NRHeight
Recruited from patients with FAI scheduled for surgeryRecruited from cohort of healthy volunteersRecruited from cohort of healthy volunteersWeight
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs and magnetic resonance arthrogram imaging
▸ α angle >55°; centre edge angle 28°–40°
▸ Typical signs of FAI confirmed during surgery (not specified)
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view)
▸ α angle <50°
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of groin pain)
▸ Negative impingement test
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view)
▸ α angle >55°
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of groin pain)
▸ Negative impingement test
Audenaert, 2012bn=10 (Cam FAI)n=10n=10AgeROM
10 (100%) males10 (100%) males10 (100%) malesGender
Mean±SD age=NRMean±SD age=NRMean±SD age=NR
Recruited from patients with FAI scheduled for surgeryRecruited from cohort of healthy volunteersRecruited from cohort of healthy volunteers
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs
▸ α angle >55°; centre edge angle 28°–40°
▸ Typical signs of FAI confirmed with a CT scan
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view)
▸ α angle <50°
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of groin pain)
▸ Negative impingement test
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view)
▸ α angle >55°
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of groin pain)
▸ Negative impingement test
Brisson, 2013n=10 (Cam FAI)n=13AgeROM
7 (70%) males8 (62%) malesGender
Mean±SD age=29.9±7.2 yearsMean±SD age=34.2±9.9 yearsBMI
Recruited from NRRecruited from NR
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view) (mean α angle >50.5°)
▸ Positive impingement test
▸ Radiographs (A/P and Dunn view) (spherical femoral heads)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury, no hip pain)
Hunt, 2013n=30 (all types FAI)n=30AgeROM
25 (83%) males20 (67%) malesGender
Mean±SD age=35.5±10.6 yearsMean±SD age=34.2±9.5 years
Recruited from orthopaedic surgeryRecruited from university community
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs (A/P) (Pincer FAI: positive cross-over)
▸ MR arthrogram imaging (cam FAI: α angle)
▸ Positive impingement signs
▸ Presence of anterior groin pain
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury, no hip pain)
▸ Negative impingement test
Rylander, 2013n=17 (all types FAI)n=17AgeROM
12 (71%) males12 (71%) malesGender
Mean±SD age=35.4±8.9 yearsMean±SD age=34.9±9.7 yearsBMI
Recruited from patients with FAI scheduled for surgeryRecruited from community
Diagnosis based on:Inclusion based on:
▸ Radiographs and MRI
▸ Cam: mean α angle >54°; Pincer: centre edge angle >35°
▸ History and clinical examination (criteria not specified)
▸ Asymptomatic (no history of lower limb injury, no hip pain)
  • *Features named as those that the groups were comparable on.

  • A/P, anteroposterior; BMI, body mass index; FAI, femoroacetabular impingement; NR, not reported; OA, osteoarthritis; ROM, range of motion; THP, total hip replacement.