Table 4

Major findings: intervention studies of physical impairments and/or activity limitations in people with and without FAI

Intervention studies
Author, YearImpairment and/or activity limitation investigatedMeasurement methodVariables measuredPreintervention score (mean±SD)Postintervention score (mean±SD)Effect sizes (95% CI)InterventionFollow-up timeIntervention details
Lamontagne, 2011Squatting abilityThree-dimensional motion analysis during squattingMean max squat depth (%)36.9±12.033.2±10.3*−0.32 (−1.20 to 0.56)Arthroscopy8–32 months postarthroscopyOpen or combined approach
ROMSagittal hip angles (°)109.8±9.7106.2±8.8−0.37 (−1.26 to 0.51)Dislocation of the hip and debridement of the proximal femur
Sum of all joint angles (hip, knee, ankle) (°)263.2±33.1277.9±35.5*0.41 (−0.48 to 1.30)
Emara, 2011ROMNot reportedHip flexion (°)95.0±0.4†88.0±3.5−3.55(−4.28 to (−2.82))Conservative treatment programmeEvery 6 months for 24 months4 Stages of conservative treatment
Hip extension (°)4.0±1.6†3.6±2.2−0.21 (−0.67 to 0.25)1. Avoidance of excessive phys. activity and drugs (2–4 weeks)
Hip abduction (°)37.0±0.4†36.0±1.4−1.10 (−1.59 to (−0.61))2. Physiotherapy (2–3 weeks stretching 20–30 min daily)
Hip adduction (°)17.0±7.0†17.0±9.00.00 (−0.46 to 0.46)3. Assessment of normal ROM after acute pain subsided
Hip external rotation in flexion (°)28.5±0.5†27.0±1.1−1.86 (−2.40 to (−1.31))4. Modification of activities of daily living predisposing to FAI
Hip external rotation in extension (°)25.3±0.3†24.6±1.0−1.07 (−1.55 to (−0.58))Follow-ups every 2–3 weeks until symptoms resolved, then every 3 mo. for 12 months, and every 6 mo. thereafter
Hip internal rotation in flexion (°)9.4±0.3†10.0±0.61.32 (0.82 to 1.82)
Hip internal rotation in extension (°)15.8±0.4†15.8±0.70.00 (−0.46 to 0.46)Surgery indicated when conservative treatment failed
Rylander, 2012ROMThree-dimensional motion analysis during gaitSagittal hip ROM (°)27.6±5.030.7±4.3*0.64 (−0.22 to 1.50)Arthroscopy12 month postarthroscopyArthroplastic reshaping surgery
Max hip flexion (°)19.9±NR22.7±NR*unable to be determined
Brisson, 2013ROMThree-dimensional motion analysis during gaitSagittal hip ROM (°)47.4± 3.646.8±4.6−0.14 (−1.02 to 0.74)Arthroscopy10–32 months postarthroscopyOpen or combined approach
Dislocation of the hip and debridement of the proximal femur
Frontal hip ROM (°)14.3±2.614.3±2.70.00 (−0.88 to 0.88)Standard post-operative rehab programme
recommended by Healthcare professional
Rylander, 2013ROMThree-dimensional motion analysis during gait and stair climbingSagittal hip ROM (°) (gait)40.0±5.742.5±7.5*0.37 (−0.44 to 1.17)Arthroscopy12 month postarthroscopyArthroscopic acetabuloplasty and/or cheilectomy
Max hip flexion (°) (gait)35.5±5.337.5±5.9*0.34 (−0.46 to 1.15)
Hip rotation ROM (°) (gait)11.3±3.514.1±5.1‡0.63 (−0.19 to 1.45)
Max hip int. rotation (°) (gait)6.5±4.610.3±5.6*0.72 (−0.11 to 1.55)
  • *Significant difference p<0.05.

  • †All postintervention data from 24 month follow-up;

  • ‡Significant difference p<0.01.

  • FAI, femoroacetabular impingement; NR, not reported; ROM, range of motion.