Table 1

Individual study data regarding the physiological responses, in which Δ were calculated as cooling minus control condition

Tc maximum controlTc maximum coolingΔTc maximumTskin maximum controlTskin maximum coolingΔTskin maximumHR maximum controlHR maximum coolingΔHR maximumPerformance (%)
Precooling
 Cooling packsCastle et al1839.138.4−0.736.936.4−0.517918124.3
Minett et al2739.139.1034.034.20.217317524.3
Weighted average39.138.8−0.435.535.3−0.117617824.3
 Cooling vestsArngrïmsson et al1139.839.6−0.234.234.50.319519501.3
Castle et al1839.138.9−0.236.936.6−0.317918451.5
Duffield et al2038.838.7−0.134.033.6−0.4NANANA2.4
Duffield et al2239.639.2−0.434.434.4018218751.3
Quod et al3039.639.70.134.634.5−0.119319301.5
Ückert et al3638.838.4−0.435.635.1−0.5192190−27.3
Weighted average39.339.1−0.235.034.8−0.218819023.4
 Cold water ingestionBurdon et al4338.738.70.033.433.3−0.1165168310.5
Byrne et al3738.638.1−0.535.435.1−0.3190189−12.9
Ihsan et al3938.839.10.335.635.80.2NANANA6.9
Siegel et al639.539.80.335.735.5−0.2188189112.8
Stanley et al3239.139.0−0.1NANANA19119101.9
Stevens et al4239.038.2−0.8NANANANANANA2.8
Weighted average39.038.8−0.135.034.9−0.118418416.3
 Mixed method coolingCotter et al1938.938.5−0.435.935.1−0.8178177−115.2
Duffield et al2239.639.0−0.634.434.0−0.418218758.3
Duffield et al2339.338.8−0.5NANANA162146−167.7
Duffield et al3839.038.9−0.134.634.80.218218643.0
Minett et al2739.139.0−0.134.034.10.1173170−35.2
Minett et al2739.138.7−0.434.033.1−0.9173169−49.5
Minett et al1239.138.7−0.433.933.1−0.8178170−84.7
Quod et al3039.639.5−0.134.633.8−0.8193192−14.0
Weighted average39.138.9−0.334.534.0−0.5178175−37.3
 Cold water immersionCastle et al1839.138.8−0.336.934.5−2.4179175−4−0.5
Duffield et al2139.038.9−0.135.735.5−0.217818357.2
Kay et al2538.838.5−0.334.733.6−1.1178177−16.0
Siegel et al3139.539.5035.735.3−0.4188190221.6
Skein et al4138.938.7−0.231.533.11.618018222.4
Weighted average39.138.9−0.234.934.4−0.518118116.5
Total precoolingWeighted average39.138.90.234.934.50.318118105.7
Student t test0.030.340.94
Percooling
 Cooling packsHsu et al2438.438.1−0.3NANANA15916126.6
Minitti et al28NANANANANANANANANA5.4
Scheadler et al4039.239.40.2NANANA1781780−11.6
Tyler et al3539.339.1−0.135.035.60.618618825.1
Tyler et al3538.338.40.135.826.1−9.718718701.9
Tyler et al3339.239.70.535.627.6−8181178−37.0
Tyler et al3438.938.9034.435.30.9185186113.0
Average38.938.90.135.231.2−4.117918003.9
 Cooling vestLuomala et al2638.939.10.234.534.70.2174178420.4
Average38.939.10.234.534.70.2174178420.4
 Cold water ingestionMündel et al2938.738.4−0.3NANANA170165−512.7
Average38.738.4−0.3NANANA170165−512.7
Total percoolingAverage38.938.90.035.131.9−3.217817807.0
Student t test0.910.160.98
Total of all studiesAverage39.138.9−0.234.934.1−0.818018005.6
Student t test0.080.080.97
  • Maximum, at the end of the exercise protocol.

  • HR, heart rate; NA, not available; Tc, core body temperature; Tskin, skin temperature.