TableĀ 1

Functional qualities of the intrinsic foot muscles and their corresponding evidence-based descriptions

Functional qualityDescription
Supportive of the foot archesDiminished function of the intrinsic foot muscles leads to deleterious alterations in foot posture32 33 whereas training the intrinsic foot muscles enhances foot posture34 35
Activity dependentIntrinsic foot muscles are more active in dynamic activities such as walking compared to standing37
Load dependentAs postural demands increase, such as from double to single limb stance, so does the activity of the intrinsic foot muscles36
SynergisticThe intrinsic foot muscles work together as a unit to provide dynamic arch support during the propulsive phase of gait38
ModulatingThe intrinsic foot muscles support the foot in its role as a platform for standing and lever for propelling the body during dynamic activities28