Table 2

Incidences per 1000 registered athletes and relative risks (RR) of injury with lower and upper limits of ±95% CI and probabilistic inferences about the true standardised magnitude in relative risks, in male and female athletes during outdoor (WOC 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, OG 2012, EOC 2012) and indoor (WIC 2014, EIC 2009, 2011, 2013) championships

 Outdoor championshipsIndoor championshipsOutdoor and indoor championships
MaleFemaleRR (95% CI)MaleFemaleRR (95% CI)MaleFemaleRR (95% CI)
Incidence of injury
 All124.5±8.598.5±8.31.26 (1.13 to 1.41)* small78.6±14.958.4±14.31.35 (0.99 to 1.83) small116.4±7.591.6±7.31.27 (1.15 to 1.41)* small
 In training30.7±4.526.1±4.51.18 (0.94 to 1.47) trivial4.0±3.51.9±2.72.06 (0.40 to 10.6) moderate26.0±3.721.9±3.71.18 (0.95 to 1.48) trivial
 In-competition91.7±7.571.4±7.21.29 (1.13 to 1.47)* small74.6±14.656.5±14.11.32 (0.96 to 1.81) small88.7±6.768.8±6.41.29 (1.14 to 1.45)* small
 Time-loss injuries59.2±6.148.1±6.01.23 (1.05 to 1.45)* small29.7±9.419.5±8.51.52 (0.89 to 2.61) small54.0±5.343.2±5.21.25 (1.07 to 1.46)* small
 Time-loss in-competition injuries47.4±5.537.9±5.31.26 (1.05 to 1.51)* small29.7±9.419.5±8.51.52 (0.89 to 2.61) small44.3±4.834.7±4.71.27 (1.07 to 1.51)* small
Incidence of injury†
 Sprints103.3±15.375.1±14.01.38 (1.08 to 1.75)* small46.9±21.145.0±23.01.04 (0.53 to 2.06) trivial91.9±13.069.5±12.21.32 (1.06 to 1.66)* small
 Hurdles$117.9±32.094.3±30.61.25 (0.82 to 1.91) small113.0±57.9130.8±63.90.86 (0.43 to 1.75) small116.8±28.0102.8±27.81.14 (0.79 to 1.63) trivial
 Middle distances132.8±30.3116.8±31.11.14 (0.80 to 1.61) trivial50.0±30.237.5±29.41.33 (0.50 to 3.59) small108.5±23.394.6±24.01.48 (1.06 to 2.06)* small
 Long distances137.5±30.8161.6±36.30.85 (0.62 to 1.17) small160.0±71.9121.6±74.51.32 (0.62 to 2.81) small141.4±28.4155.3±32.70.91 (0.68 to 1.22) trivial
 Marathon195.5±44.0153.3±43.71.28 (0.89 to 1.83) small195.5±44.0153.3±43.71.28 (0.89 to 1.83) small
 Race walks‡$113.6±30.944.6±28.52.55 (1.27 to 5.10)* moderate113.6±30.944.6±28.52.55 (1.27 to 5.10)* moderate
 Jumps133.0±25.755.9±18.32.38 (1.63 to 3.48)* moderate59.5±24.739.9±22.11.49 (0.75 to 2.98) small107.6±19.050.6±14.22.13 (1.53 to 2.97)* moderate
 Throws‡$59.0±18.039.5±15.81.49 (0.90 to 2.45) small32.6±36.30.0±0.0NA55.8±16.435.7±14.31.56 (0.95 to 2.57) small
 Combined events‡$225.0±64.7243.4±68.20.92 (0.62 to 1.38) trivial314.8±123.994.3±78.73.34 (1.33 to 8.39)* large247.7±57.8204.9±55.31.21 (0.85 to 1.73) small
  • EOC 2010, WIC 2008 and WIC 2010 excluded since information on sex was missing for 17.6–66.7% of injuries; OG 2008 excluded since information on circumstances, event groups and time loss were missing for 45%, 31% and 30% of injuries, respectively.

  • *Significant relative risk between male and female athletes (p<0.05).

  • †Data from OG 2012 excluded since information on event groups was not available.

  • $‡Event groups differ for male and female athletes: hurdles: 110m hurdles versus 100 m hurdles and height of hurdles for 400 m hurdles; race walks: 20 and 50 km versus 20 km only; throws: the weight of tools are different; and combined events: 10 versus 7 events; for male and female athletes respectively.

  • EIC, European Indoor Championships; EOC, European Outdoor Championships; OG, Olympic Games; WIC, World Indoor Championships; WOC, World Outdoor Championships