Table 1

Matches only

Author and year of publicationAgeNumber of playersNumber of injuriesTotal exposureIncidence of injury (95% CI where given)Game duration in minutes*Average probability of injury to a player in a typical season (%)†
Davidson (1978)3412–1865955640 588 player-hours‡13.7 injuries per 1000 player-hours7021
Davidson (1987)35≤13Not given1198750 player-hours13.6 injuries per 1000 player-hours5016
14 and 15Not given1417675 player-hours18.4 injuries per 1000 player-hours7028
≥16Not given1646410 player-hours25.6 injuries per 1000 player-hours7036
Durie (2000)491st XV442 in total29441 player-hours‡65.8 injuries per 1000 player-hours7068
2nd XV14400 player-hours‡35.0 injuries per 1000 player-hours7046
3rd XV9321 player-hours‡28.0 injuries per 1000 player-hours7039
4th XV10281 player-hours‡35.6 injuries per 1000 player-hours7046
5th XV7273 player-hours‡25.6 injuries per 1000 player-hours7036
Social7280 player-hours‡25.0 injuries per 1000 player-hours7035
U177280 player-hours‡25.0 injuries per 1000 player-hours7035
U16301115 player-hours‡26.9 injuries per 1000 player-hours7085
U15301500 player-hours‡25.0 injuries per 1000 player-hours7083
U14351683 player-hours‡20.8 injuries per 1000 player-hours7089
U1311550 player-hours‡20.0 injuries per 1000 player-hours6045
Fuller (2011)64U209411903320 player-hours57.2 (49.6 to 66.0) injuries per 1000 player-hours7063
Gabbett (2008)3817–1980621092 player-hours56.8 (42.6 to 70.9) injuries per 1000 player-hours8068
Haseler (2010)44U9–U12114210 in total1636 player-hours in total11.9 (4.1 to 19.6) injuries per 1000 player-hours309
U13–U179634.2 (21.9 to 46.4) injuries per 1000 player-hours5035
King (2006)52U1668 in total51234 player-hours‡217.9 per 1000 player-hours6096
U1823107 player-hours‡216.0 per 1000 player-hours7098
Junge (2004)5014–181232251734 player-hours‡129.8 injuries per 1000 player-hours7090
McIntosh (2010)39Game injuries:3277 in totalGame injuries:U13: 4046 player-hoursGame injuries:
U13184U15: 4624 player-hours43.3 (37.5 to 50.1) injuries per 1000 player-hours7053
U15250U18: 7515 player-hours56.2 (49.6 to 63.6) injuries per 1000 player-hours7063
U18461U20: 12 717 player-hours63.0 (57.5 to 69.1) injuries per 1000 player-hours7067
U2094673.4 (68.9 to 78.3) injuries per 1000 player-hours7072
Missed game injuries:Missed game injuries:Missed game injuries:
U135011.8 (8.9 to 15.5) injuries per 1000 player-hours7019
U159922.3 (18.3 to 27.1) injuries per 1000 player-hours7032
U1816222.2 (19.0 to 25.8) injuries per 1000 player-hours7032
U2029322.6 (20.2 to 25.4) injuries per 1000 player-hours7033
Nathan (1983)33U10–U13Not given10‡27003.7 injuries per 1000 player-hours706
U14–U19Not given40‡337511.9 injuries per 1000 player-hours7019
Nicol (2011)5711–17470§262406 player-hours10.8 injuries per 1000 player-hours4010
Palmer Green (2013)4616–18School:School:School:School:
2221343843 player-hours35 injuries per 1000 player-hours7046
Academy:Academy:Academy:Academy:
2501092343 player-hours47 injuries per 1000 player-hours7056
Pringle (1998)516–15Rugby union:Rugby union:Rugby union:Rugby union:
1932241548 player-hours‡15.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours4014
Rugby league:Rugby league:Rugby league:Rugby league:
1730361469 player-hours‡24.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours4022
Rotem (2011)43Not givenNot given2320123 404 player-hours‡18.8 injuries per 1000 player-hours7028
Roux (1987)53<18Not given35350 126 player-hours‡7.0 injuries per 1000 player-hours7012
Sparks (1985)481st XVNot given44840 player-hours52.4 injuries per 1000 player-hours7060
2nd XVNot given28585 player-hours47.9 injuries per 1000 player-hours7057
3rd XVNot given16605 player-hours26.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours7037
4th XVNot given16400 player-hours40.0 injuries per 1000 player-hours7050
U16Not given29985 player-hours59.4 injuries per 1000 player-hours7065
U15Not given38701 player-hours108.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours6080
U14Not given17620 player-hours54.2 injuries per 1000 player-hours5049
Bird (1998)32Schoolboy54Not givenNot given6.2 (4.7 to 8.1) injuries per 100 player-gamesNot applicableNot applicable
Schoolgirl23Not givenNot given4.7 (1.9 to 9.3) injuries per 100 player-games
Colt64Not givenNot given10.8 (8.4 to 13.5) injuries per 100 player-games
Collins (2008)6013–19Not given48832 014 match-exposures15.2 injuries per 1000 match-exposuresNot applicableNot applicable
Marshall (2001)61Not givenNot given12 concussions1071 player-games‡11.1 (4.8 to 17.4) concussions per 1000 player-gamesNot applicableNot applicable
Usman (2013)42Not givenNot givenNot givenNot given10.7 (9.9 to 11.6) upper limb injuries per 1000 athletic-exposuresNot applicableNot applicable
Garraway (2000)16<1659Not givenNot givenPeriod prevalence 10.8 per 1000 playing-hoursNot applicableNot applicable
16–19192Not givenNot givenPeriod prevalence 16.8 per 1000 playing-hours
Lee (1996)56Schools:Schools:Schools:Schools:Schools:Not applicableNot applicable
111312131 player-seasons‡15.3 (−5.7 to 36.3) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
1228613310 player-seasons‡42.0 (18.7 to 65.2) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
1334516345 player-seasons‡46.4 (24.2 to 68.6) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
1432723358 player-seasons‡64.2 (37.6 to 90.8) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
1522520225 player-seasons‡88.9 (51.7 to 126.1) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
1622232254 player-seasons‡126.1 (82.5 to 170.0) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
17–1916942182 player-seasons‡230.8 (167.2 to 294.3) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
Clubs:Clubs:Clubs:Clubs:Clubs:
<1620426221 player-seasons‡117.6 (73.4 to 161.9) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
16–1924572284 player-seasons‡253.1 (198.6 to 307.5) injuries per 1000 player-seasons
  • Study population, number of players, number of injuries, exposure, injury incidence and average probability of injury to a player in a season.

  • *Game duration in minutes according to national and international rules and regulations.3 ,24 ,26 ,28–31

  • †Average probability of injury to a player using the Poisson distribution model of Parekh et al6 assuming a player plays a whole season of 15 games with each game 70 min in duration (as per under 19 IRB (International Rugby Board) regulations3). Injury incidence needs to be given as per 1000 player-hours.

  • ‡Calculated post hoc from figures in paper.

  • §Matches and training combined, separate figures not available.