Table 1

Changes in cardiovascular variables in untrained men as a result of a period of recreational F training compared to R or inactive C

StudyActivity, target group, genderAge (years)Training intervention;
Duration (weeks), intensity (%), frequency (per week), session duration (min)
VO2max (mL/kg/min or %)VO2max (L/min or %)HR sub-max (bpm)HR rest (bpm)BPsys rest, (mmHg)BPdia rest, (mmHg)MAP rest (mmHg)RV systolic function, TAPSE (cm)LV diastolic function, E/A ratio (%)Arterial stiffness (AI) (%) 
Krustrup et al1 2 10
F, UT, M,2912; 82%HRmax; 2.3; 6013%↑*11%↑*20↓*†6↓*8↓*5↓*6↓*
R, UT, M3112; 82%HRmax; 2.5; 608%↑*7%↑*21↓*†6↓*7↓*5↓*6↓*
C, UT, M31No intervention1%↓NS1%↓NS0↔NS1↑NS2↓NS2↑NS1↑NS
Randers et al8 41F, UT, M3164; 82%HRmax; 1.3; 608%↑*6%↑*22↓*†8↓*‡8↓*‡3↓NS5↓*
C, UT, M32No intervention2↓NS2↓NS3↑NS1↑NS
Schmidt et al26F, UT, M6852; 82%HRmax; 1.7; 45–6018%↑*‡8↓*NSNSNS0.5↑*‡25%↑*‡
S, UT, M6952; 8–20RM; 1.9; 45–603%↑NS2↓NSNSNSNS0.0↔NSNS
C, UT, M67No intervention1%↑NS2↓NSNSNSNS0.2 ↓NSNS
Andersen et al6F, UT, M6816; 84%HRmax; 1.6; 45–603.8↑*8↓*
S, UT, M6916; 8–20RM; 1.5; 45–600.8↑NS9↓NS
C, UT, M67No intervention0.7↓NS7↓NS
Krustrup et al15F, UT, Ma,4624; 85%HRmax; 1.7; 608%↑*12↓NS8↓*13↓*‡8↓*‡10↓*‡7%↓*
DAG, UT, Ma47DA on CRF3%↓NS4↓NS3↓NS8↓*3↓*5↓*↔NS
Andersen et al6F, UT, Ma4624; 83%HRmax; 1.7; 608%↑*8↓*10↓*‡0.4↑*‡34%↑*‡
DAG, UT, Ma47DA on CRF2%↓NS3↓NS5↓*NSNS
Knoepfli-Lenzin et al22F, UT, Mmh3712; 80%HRmax; 2.4; 609%↑*6%↑*7↓*11↓*9↓*‡10↓*†
R, UT, Mmh3612; 79%HRmax; 2.5; 6012%↑*11%↑*9↓*7↓*6↓*6↓*
C, UT, Mmh38No intervention1%↑NS1%↑NS6↓*7↓*4↓*6↓*
Schmidt et al17F, UT, Mt5124; 82%HRmax; 1.2; 6012%↑*11%↑*6↓NS9↓*8↓*8↓*0.4↑*‡18%*↑0.1%↑NS
C, UT, Mt49No intervention2%↑NS2%↑NS2↑NS3↑NS0↔NS1↑NS0.1↓NSNS0.6%↑NS
De Sousa et al39F, UT, Mt+Wt6112; 83%HRmax; 3; 40; F+D10%↑*‡
C, UT, Mt+Wt61Diet group3%↓ NS
Uth et al37F, UT, Mp6712; 85%HRmax; 2–3; 45–601.5↑*
C, UT, Mp67No intervention0.3↑ NS
Faude et al56F, UT, OCh1112; 80%HRmax; 4.5; 607%↓NS5%↓NS7↓*
SP, UT, OCh1112; 77%HRmax; 4.5; 607%↓NS3%↓NS7↓*
Hansen et al55F, UT, OCh1012; >80%HRmax; 4; 60–900.26↑*‡NS1.9%↑NS
C, UT, OCh11No interventionNSNS2.7%↓NS
  • Changes between pretraining and post-training intervention (unless otherwise stated).

  • *Significant difference from 0 weeks.

  • †Significant group difference compared to control.

  • ‡Significant group difference.

  • a, hypertensive participants; AI, augmentation index; BPdia, diastolic blood pressure; BPsys, systolic blood pressure; C, controls; CRF, cardiovascular risk factors; DAG, doctor's advice group; E/A ratio, ratio of early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities; F, football; F+D, football + diet group; HRmax, maximal heart rate; LV left ventricular; M, men; MAP, mean arterial pressure; mh, mildly hypertensive participants; NS, not significant; OC, overweight children; p, prostate cancer patients; R, running; RV, right ventricular; S, strength training; SP, standard physical activity; t, type 2 diabetics; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; UT, untrained; W, women.