Table 3

Changes in body composition in untrained men as a result of a period of recreational F training compared to R or inactive C

StudyActivity, target group, genderAge (years)Training programme;
Duration (weeks), intensity (%), frequency (per week), session duration (min)
Total fat mass (kg)Total fat percentage (%)Lean body mass, whole body (kg)Lean body mass, legs (kg)Bone mineral density, left and right proximal femur (%)Bone mineral density, left and right femoral neck (%)Bone mineral density (legs) (%)Bone mineral density, trunk (%)Bone marker –osteocalcin (%)
Krustrup et al1F, UT, M2912; 82%HRmax; 2.3; 602.7↓*†2.9↓*†1.7↑*†1.1↑*†
R, UT, M3112; 82%HRmax; 2.5; 601.7↓*1.7↓*0.6↑NS0.6↑NS
C, UT, M31No intervention0.3↓NS0.2↓NS0.1↑NS0.3↓NS
Randers et al8 41F, UT, M3164; 82%HRmax; 1.3; 603.2↓*†3.8↓*†2.7↑*1.1↑*†‡2%↑*
C, UT, M32No intervention0.2↓NS0.6↓NS1.2↑*0.2↑NS1%↑NS
Helge et al42F, UT, M6852; 82%HRmax; 1.7; 45–60LL:2.4%↑* RL:2.9%↑*LL:5.4%↑* RL:3.8%↑*46%↑*†
S, UT, M6952; 8–20RM; 1.9; 45–60NSNSNS
C, UT, M67No interventionNSNSNS
Krustrup et al15F, UT, Ma4624; 85%HRmax; 1.7; 601.9↓NS2.2↓NS0.2↑NS0.1↑NS2.1%↑NS
DAG, UT, Ma47DA on CRF0.9↓NS1.0↓NS0.2↑NS0.0↔NS0.0% NS
Knoepfli-Lenzin et al22F, UT, Mmh3712; 80%HRmax; 2.4; 602.0↓*2.0↓*†0.5↑NS
R, UT, Mmh3612; 79%HRmax; 2.5; 601.7↓*1.4↓NS0.0↔NS
C, UT, Mmh38No intervention0.1↑NS0.1↑NS0.3↓NS
De Sousa et al39F, UT, Mt+Wt6112; 83%HRmax; 3; 40; F+D3.4↓*2.4↓NS0.2↓NS
C, UT, Mt+Wt61Diet group3.7↓*2.4↓NS1.0↓NS
Andersen et al5F, UT, Mt5124; 83%HRmax; 1.5; 601.7↓*1.5↓*0.7↑NS0.5↑NSNS
C, UT, Mt49No intervention0.1↓NS0.2↓NS0.8↑NS0.5↓*NS
Helge et al46F, UT, Mh3612; 82%HRmax; 2.2; 601.8↓*0.9↑*1%↑*27%↑*†
C, UT, Mh43No interventionNSNSNSNS
Uth et al37F, UT, Mp6712; 85%HRmax; 2–3; 45–601.3↓*0.9↓*0.9↑*†
C, UT, Mp67No intervention0.3↓NS0.0↔NS0.1↑NS
  • Changes between pre and post training intervention (unless otherwise stated).

  • *Significant difference from 0 weeks.

  • †Significant group difference compared to control.

  • ‡Significant group differences.

  • a, hypertensive subjects; C, controls; CRF, cardiovascular risk factors; DAG, doctor's advice group; F, football; F+D, football+diet group; h, homeless subjects; HRmax, maximal heart rate; LL, left leg; M, men; mh; mildly hypertensive subjects; NS, not significant; p, prostate cancer patients; R, running; RL, right leg; S, strength training; t, type 2 diabetics; UT, untrained; W, women