Table 2

Demographics and characteristics of included studies

StudyParticipants/mean duration of symptomsPathologyReference standardReference standard
SN/SP (95% CI)
Clinical test investigated
Aprato et al6541 participants (average age range 23–25 between surgical dislocation and arthroscopy groups; 17 females)
FAIMRA 1.5 T; Cam: α angle >50°; local pincer: (+) crossover sign and (−) posterior wall sign and α angle <50°; pincer: (+) crossover and posterior wall signs or coxa profunda and α angle of <50°; mixed: local or global pincer associated with a cam100/100 (α angle)
91 (NR)/86 (NR) (ALT)
▸ FADDIR test
Ayeni et al8076 consecutive prospectively enrolled participants/78 hips (mean age 38.3 years, 39 females) presenting to adult outpatient clinic over 3 month period.
FAIMRI or MRA 1.5 T; α angle >55° and/or loss of femoral head–neck offset <9.0 mmNR in study
MRI (ALT): 70 (62 to 77)/82 (69 to 94)
MRA (ALT): 83 (79 to 88)/57 (44 to 70)86
▸ Bilateral LE squat (maximum depth)
Barton et al6668 participants (age range 17 to 60 years, 37 females) from prospective database of all patients undergoing joint-preserving surgery and all having (+) MRA for ALT.
FAIMRA 1.5 T; α angle>50.5°NR in study
MRA (ALT): 83 (79 to 88)/57 (44 to 70)86
▸ FADDIR test
Beaule et al8130 participants/36 hips (mean age 40.7 years, 36 hips, 13 females) with painful, non-dysplastic hips.
>3 months
ALTMRA 1.5 TNR in study
MRA (ALT): 83 (79 to 88)/57 (44 to 70)86
▸ FADDIR test
Chan et al7430 participants (mean age 41 years, 13 females) with unclear intra-articular hip pain.
Arthroscopy (n=17)
97 (77 to 100)/25 (3 to 80)*▸ Flexion-IR test
Domayer et al6749 participants/60 hips (mean age 28±10.2 years, 29 females) with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of FAI
FAIMRI 1.5 T; cam FAI=α angle >55°NR in study
MRI (ALT): 70 (62 to 77)/82 (69 to 94)(86)
▸ FADDIR test
Hananouchi et al7569 participants/107 hips (83 painful hips, 24 non-painful hips) prospectively examined (mean age 57.2 years, 54 females) with various pathology
FAI, dysplasiaMRI 3 T; FAI: crossover sign, α angle >50°, aspherical femoral head, or CEA >40°
Dysplasia: CEA <25°
NR in study
MRI (0.5 to 3 T) (ALT) : 66 (59 to 73)/79 (67 to 91)86
▸ FADDIR test
Keeney et al68101 consecutive participants/102 hips (mean age 37.6 years, 71 females) with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of ALT.
21.6 months
Variable: ALT, chondral defect, synovitisMRA 1.5 TNR in study
MRA (ALT): 83 (79 to 88)/57 (44 to 70)86
▸ FADDIR test
Laude et al6997 subjects/100 hips (mean age 33.4 years, range 16 to 56 years, 47 females) with persistent hip pain
ALTArthroscopyNA▸ FADDIR test
Leunig et al7623 participants (mean age 40±2 years, 14 females) with ARS
3.5 years
Variable: ALT, dysplasia, arthritic changesSurgeryNA▸ FADDIR test
Martin et al77105 participants (mean age 42±15 years, 24 females) potential surgical candidates due to high suspicion of intra-articular pathology (from subjective history)
1.9 years
Variable: ALT, FAI, arthritic changesIntra-articular Injection with < or >50% pain reliefNR in study▸ FABER test
▸ FADDIR test
▸ Trochanteric tenderness test
Maslowski et al7850 participants (mean age 60.2 years, 30 females) with signs/symptoms suggestive of intra-articular pathology
Variable: ALT, FAI, arthritic changes, AVNIntra-articular injection with ≥80% pain reliefNR in study▸ FABER test
▸ Scour test
▸ IR with overpressure
▸ Resisted SLR test
McCarthy and Busconi359 participants (mean age 37 years, 32 females) with refractory hip pain
ALT, synovitis, loose bodies, arthritic changesArthroscopyNA▸ Thomas test
Myrick and Nissen70100 participants (age range 10–40 years, gender NR) with signs/symptoms suggestive of ALT
ALTArthroscopyNA▸ THIRD test
Narvani et al518 participants (mean age 30.5±8.5 years, 5 females) with groin pain
ALTMRA 1.0 TNR in study
MRA (0.5 to 3 T) (ALT): 87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74)86
▸ IR-flexion-axial compression test
Nogier et al64241 participants (mean age 35±10 years, 111 females) with mechanical hip pain
All >4 months
Dysplasia, FAIAP pelvic, false profile and lateral axial radiographs; arthroscan or arthro-MRI prescribed at investigator's discretionNR in study▸ Flexion-IR test
Peters et al7194 participants/96 hips (mean age 28 years, 40 females) with signs/symptoms suggestive of FAI
FAI, articular cartilage lesions/arthritic changesOpen surgical dislocationNA▸ FADDIR test
Petersilge et al6310 participants (mean age 38.4 years, 5 females) with unexplained intra-articular hip pain
ALT, dysplasia, ganglion cystArthroscopyNA▸ Flexion-IR test
Sink et al7235 participants (mean age 16 years, 30 females) with signs/symptoms suggestive of FAI
3 months to 3 years
Variable: ALT, FAI, cartilage damageMRI/MRA, AP pelvic radiographNR in study
MRI (0.5 to 3 T) (ALT) : 66 (59 to 73)/79 (67 to 91)86
▸ FADDIR test
Troelsen et al7918 participants (age range 32 to 56 years, 16 females) with previous PAO
Dysplasia, ALTMRAMRA (0.5 to 3 T) (ALT):
87 (84 to 90)/64 (54 to 74)86
▸ FABER test
▸ FADDIR test
Wang et al7321 participants (mean age 37.1 years, range 17 to 65 years, 12 females) with definite pain around hip joint, predominantly in the groin
12.4 months
ALT, FAICross table and frog leg radiographs: cam FAI= α angle >50°; pincer=coxa profunda, cross-over sign or CEA >40°NR in study▸ FADDIR test
  • *Values calculated by authors of this study.

  • α, alpha angle; ARS, acetabular rim syndrome; AVN, avascular necrosis; CEA, center edge angle; Dx, diagnosis; FABER, flexion, abduction, external rotation test; FADDIR, flexion-adduction-internal rotation impingement test, IR, internal rotation; LE, lower extremity; MRA, MR angiogram; NA, not applicable; NR, not reported; PAO, periacetabular osteotomy surgery.