Table 5

Change in physical activity over three time points: baseline (age 9/10 years), +1 year (age 10/11 years) and +4 years (age 13/14 years)

 Sedentary (min)Light intensity PA (min)MVPA (min)
β Coefficient95% CIp Valueβ Coefficient95% CIp Valueβ Coefficient95% CIp Value
Home location
Age (years)9.46.8 to 12.1<0.00111.012.4 to9.6<0.0011.32.3 to 10.40.006
Sex (reference category: boys)
Girls13.18.8 to 17.4<0.0017.29.8 to4.6<0.00117.0−18.9 to −15.2<0.001
Home location (reference category: urban)
Town/suburban−14.7−57.7 to 28.20.501−6.8−30.0 to 16.30.56315.7−0.6 to 32.00.059
Rural−36.6−76.6 to 3.40.073−21.0−42.5 to 0.50.05629.714.5 to 44.9<0.001
Age–home location interaction (reference category: urban)
Town/suburban0.9−3.0 to 4.80.6630.90−1.16 to 2.960.3921.452.89 to0.010.049
Rural3.2−0.4 to 6.80.0832.40.5 to 4.30.0153.04.4 to1.7<0.001
Weight status
Age (years)11.810.1 to 13.4<0.0019.510.5 to8.6<0.0013.23.9 to2.5<0.001
Sex (reference category: boys)
Girls12.88.5 to 17.1<0.0017.19.7 to −4.5<0.001−16.7−18.5 to 2.30.143
Weight status (reference category: normal weight)
Overweight or obese56.319.6 to 92.90.00314.4−4.5 to 33.30.13617.5−3.9 to −2.5<0.001
Age–weight status interaction (reference category: normal weight)
Overweight or obese−4.88.1 to1.40.005−1.2−3.0 to 0.50.1571.0−0.4 to 2.30.143
Parental education
Age (years)10.68.4 to 12.9<0.00110.511.8 to −9.3<0.001−2.8−3.7 to −1.9<0.001
Sex (reference category: boys)
Girls13.28.9 to 17.5<0.0017.1−9.6 to −4.5<0.001−17.0−18.9 to −15.2<0.001
Parental education (reference category: ≤16 years)
>16 years9.1−22.1 to 40.20.569−16.9−33.0 to −0.90.039−0.9−13.5 to 11.70.885
Age–parental education interaction (reference category: ≤16 years)
>16 years−0.1−2.9 to 2.70.9421.3−0.2 to 2.70.084−0.1−1.3 to 1.00.812
  • Results are from three level mixed effects linear regression with levels: age, individual and baseline school. Participants with ≥2 time points (n=990) are included in the models. Results are from models of activity outcomes derived for all days combined, and adjusted for sex. Interactions were tested for all models and presented where significant. β Coefficients represent the per year changes in the physical activity outcomes.

  • MVPA, moderate and vigorous physical activity; PA, physical activity.