Table 3

Included articles—outcome factors

Outcome categorySpecific outcome factors in categoryIncidence in included studies
PowerPeak power (kayak,27 forearm flexor,29 row,42 30% 1RM bench press throw,38 isometric bench press,38 overhead medicine ball throw,38 lateral medicine ball throw38)7
Baseball bat speed27–315
 Peak acceleration (30% of 1RM bench press throw, isometric bench press, overhead medicine ball throw, lateral medicine ball throw)324
Peak displacement (30% of 1RM bench press throw, isometric bench press, overhead medicine ball throw, lateral medicine ball throw)324
Average power (bench press30/kayak paddling10 27)314 15 19
Golf club head speed10 92
Tennis serve speed17 342
Throwing speed23 332
Sprint performance (kayak10, 50-yard freestyle32)214 24
Total31
StrengthImmediate maximum isometric contraction11 13 18 20 32 41–449
1RM16 20 363
Peak force (30% of 1RM, overhead and lateral medicine ball throw)323
Long-term maximum isometric contraction12 92
Maximum eccentric muscle force431
Maximum isokinetic contraction421
Peak torque371
Total20
PhysiologicalPeak VO214 152
Total VO214 152
Accumulated oxygen deficit14 152
Plasma creatine kinase levels12 132
Muscle temperature11 18 423
Mean EMG frequency11 372
RMS EMG frequency22 372
Skin temperature201
Heart rate241
Intracellular pH211
Pi/PCr levels211
Muscle fibre conduction velocity371
1/2 contraction time371
Total VCO2151
Total21
Passive indicatorsUpper arm circumference12 13 42 434
 Pain threshold (cold thermal, pressure)412
Rating of perceived exertion241
Stroke count241
Total8
DOMS11–13 20 41–43Total7
FlexibilityElbow ROM12 13 20 42 435
 Wrist ROM411
Total6
EnduranceBench press endurance351
Maximum voluntary contraction endurance181
Dynamic grip endurance441
Bench press overload volume351
Total4
AccuracyThrowing accuracy23 332
Golf club head swing path91
Total3
  • DOMS, delayed onset muscle soreness; EMG, Electromyography; RMS, root mean square; ROM, range of motion.