Table 2

Head impact responses for glove/fist impacts

Velocity6.85 m/s8.34 m/s
DirectionCentre-frontLeft lateralCentre-frontLeft lateral
HeadguardTop TenNoneTop TenNoneTop TenNoneTop TenNone
Test characteristicsNumber of tests22333433
Peak RaHd (g)Mean60*8946*8688*13186*133
SD121235814
HIC (15)Mean82*14862*132183*322165*326
SD572510153438
Peak Fc (N)Mean2693*39001983*37374107*54623820*5941
SD364972109230316604212
Peak αHdx (rad/s2)Mean2461*40483747*5765
SD64320796794
Peak αHdy (rad/s2)Mean2619*37463620*4905
SD21175161353
Peak RαHdx,y (rad/s2)Mean282655822470*4062391574703758*5787
SD191758663202682535800802
Peak RαHd (rad/s2)Mean287156172849*5202407274894323*7411
SD40179281552762543244812
  • The ‘y’ axis angular kinematics are most relevant for the centre front impacts and the ‘x’ axis angular kinematics for the lateral impacts. The ‘y’ axis equates to head flexion-extension (or pitch) and ‘x’ axis equates to lateral flexion (or roll).

  • *Indicates a significant difference (p<0.05).

  • HIC, Head Injury Criterion.