Table 1

Summary table for studies comparing the efficacy of US-guided injections to landmark-guided injections

Accuracy studiesDesignUSLMUSLMAccuracy assessmentUS (%)LM (%)
Subacromial space
 Dogu et al28Prospective, double-blind RCT2323Lateral (in plane)PosteriorMR arthrography6570
Biceps tendon sheath
 Hashiuchi et al33Prospective, single-blind RCT1515Lateral (in plane)Inferior to superiorCT scan8727
GH Joint
 Patel et al34Prospective cadaveric (fresh non-frozen) RCT4040Posterior (in plane)PosteriorRadiograph9373
AC Joint
 Peck et al35Prospective cadaveric (fresh frozen) observer blinded RCT1010Lateral (in plane)LateralDissection10040
 Sabeti-Aschraf et al 36Prospective cadaveric (fresh) observer blinded RCT6060Anterior (out of plane)AnteriorUS scan9572
Borbas et al37Prospective cadaveric (Thiel preserved) observer blinded RCT4040Anterior (out of plane)AnteriorDissection9070
  • AC, acromioclavicular; FU, follow-up; GH, glenohumeral; IP, In-plane; LM, landmark; NRS, Numerical Rating Scale; RCT, randomised clinical trial; US, ultrasound; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.