Table 3

Incidence of overuse wrist injuries and wrist pain

Study informationStudy populationOutcomesIncidence rates
Author (year), countryDesignData collectionSample size (F, M)Mean age in years (SD and/or range)Type and level of sportOveruse wrist injury definition and period of measurementResultsWrist painOveruse wrist injuriesQuality level
O'Kane et al20 (2011), USACross-sectionalQuestionnaire*96 (all F)Not specified
Level subgroups:
Level 4, 9.0 (SD 1.6); level 5, 9.5 (SD 1.3); level 6, 10.8 (SD 2.2); levels 7–10, 13.1 (SD 1.8)
Gymnastics, of levels 4 (19), 5 (30), 6 (12) and 7–10 (35)Wrist pain sustained within 10 months previous to survey, caused by gymnastics, lasting > 2 weeks, not resulting from acute injury7 overuse injuries of the wrist7.3%Sufficient
Smoljanovic et al21 (2009),21 ChinaCross-sectionalQuestionnaire and interview§398 (167 F, 231 M)Median 18 (IQR 1)Rowing, at Junior World ChampionshipsChronic, long-lasting wrist pain sustained during 12 months previous to survey, connected to sport activity, without specific inciting event36 overuse injuries of forearm/wrist (22 F, 14 M)9%Sufficient
Kirialanis22 (2002), GreeceProspective cohortInjury surveillance through semiweekly injury registration by orthopaedic surgeon, physiotherapist and trainer187 (87 F, 100 M)¶Not specified
Age subgroups:
F, 11.5 (SD 2.3), M, 13 (SD 3.2)
Artistic gymnastics, prenational team preparing for Olympic GamesOveruse wrist injury occurring within 12 months after start of study during games or practices that made athlete miss a subsequent game or practice session, graded ‘Minor’ (absence from training/games <1 week), ‘Moderate’ (absence 1 week to 1 month) or ‘Major’ (absence >1 month)3 participants with overuse syndrome of wrist/hand0.016%Sufficient
Caine et al23 (1989), USAProspective cohortInterview, medical record, musculoskeletal screening by physical therapist, biweekly injury surveillance, training diary, verbal injury report by participant/coach, injury observation by primary investigator50 (all F)
Dropout: 21
Dropout subgroups:
non-dropouts, 12.1; dropouts, 13.3
Gymnastics, of levels III (26), II (7), I (14) and elite (3)Overuse wrist injury sustained within 12 months after start of study characterised by gradual onset, related to gymnastics, and resulting in participant missing portion of workout or competitive event13 gradual onset wrist injuries26%Good
Lindner and Caine24 (1990), CanadaProspective cohortQuestionnaire completed by injured participants identified by coach, follow-up injury report 1 month after initial injury, background information**178 (all F)
At start study: 161
Joined during study: 17††
Dropout: 97
Not specified
Level subgroups: 1, 9.78 (SD 1.75, range 7–15); 2, 10.62 (SD 1.54, range 8–14); 3, 11.93 (SD 1.58, range 9–14); 4, 11.29 (SD 0.91, range 10–12); National level, 12.78 (SD 1.44, range 10–15)
Gymnastics of provincial levels 1 (82), 2 (32), 3 (15), 4 (14), and National level (18)Physical complaint of wrist with gradual onset, sustained within 3 years after start of study, related to gymnastics, characterised by inability to perform activity requiring use of wrist for longer than one day1 wrist injury of gradual onset0.6%Good
  • *Participants underage of 12 years complete questionnaire with parental assistance.

  • †Number of cases not specified.

  • Incidence calculated from published data.

  • §Additional communication with non-English speaking participants by translators, team managers or team physicians.

  • ¶Dropout rate not reported.

  • **Background information form completed by participant, if necessary with the help of a parent.

  • ††Number of participants joined during study calculated from published data.

  • F, female; M, male; WP, wrist pain.