Table 2

Analysis of programme design and aims

AuthorStated exercise aim (title)Method exercise aim (within text)Reviewers’ interpretation of actual exercise aimFit of stated exercise aim (in text) and actual exerciseOutcome measure suitability for reviewer defined exercise aim and comment
Nakagawa et al40StrStrNM01No patient capacity specific loading; no additional load; Assessed muscle EMG and isokinetic strength
Ismail et al39StrStrStrEnd12Proximal rehabilitation performed at 60% of 10 RM; No patient specific training intensity for CKC exercises reported
Fukuda et al23StrStrStr21Programme used 70% of ‘estimated 1 RM’ that could be performed pain free
Fukuda et al38StrStrStr21Programme used 70% of ‘estimated 1 RM’ that could be performed pain free
Razeghi et al37StrStrStrEnd12McQueen method of load progression used
Dolak et al24StrStrStrEnd12Load progression as % of body weight, not of muscle capacity
Ferber et al46StrStrStrEnd11Progression offered if exercise performed ‘too easily’, definition of ‘too easily’ not reported
Ferber et al42StrNMStrEnd11Clinician led load prescription, ensuring last 3 of 10 repetitions were ‘challenging’
Khayambashi et al26StrStrNM02Resistance progression was generic, 3×20–25 repetitions were performed for each exercise
Baldon et al44NM/StrNM/StrNM/Str22NM programme 20 repetitions plus isometric holds; Str performed at 75% 1 RM 3×12 repetitions
Khayambashi et al43StrStrNM01Generic progression of resistance, 3×20–25 repetitions were performed for each exercise
Avraham et al41StrStrUnclearUnclearUnclearProgramme not clearly defined, repetitions dependent on patient ‘capability’; no additional load described
Tyler et al45Not statedStrStrEnd/NM/P01Programme described as ‘progressive resistive exercise’ but exact number of repetitions and load not described
Earl and Hoch25StrNMNM11Assessed kinematic change, but also assessed strength
  • 0=No, 1=In part, 2=Yes.

  • CKC, closed kinetic chain; EMG, electromyography; NM, neuromuscular (>20 repetitions, <30% 1 RM); P, power (85–100% 1 RM or 0–60% 1 RM at explosive velocity); RM, repetition maximum; Str, strength (≥70% 1 RM); StrEnd, strength endurance (30–70% 1 RM).