TableĀ 1

Methodological quality assessment scores of included articles

ArticleExternal validityInternal validityOverall score
Population was a close representation of national populationSampling frame was a close representation of populationRandomised sample or census data were usedMinimal non-response biasData collected directly from the subjectsAcceptable case definition was usedInstrumentation was reliable and validThe same mode of data collection was used for all subjectsThe length of the assessment period was appropriateThe numerator and denominator of the parameter of interest was reported
Bennell et al10HighLowHighLowLowLowLowLowLowHighLow
Bennell et al12HighLowHighLowLowLowLowLowLowHighLow
Bennell et al11HighLowHighLowLowLowLowLowLowHighLow
Cobb, 200717LowLowHighLowLowHighLowHighLowLowLow
Kelsey et al13LowLowHighLowLowHighLowLowLowLowLow
Nieves et al14LowLowHighLowLowHighLowLowLowLowLow
Tenforde et al15HighLowLowLowHighHighHighLowLowLowModerate
Yagi et al16HighLowLowLowHighLowLowLowLowHighLow