Table 1

Types of preventive and risk mitigation interventions for dental caries, periodontal disease, dental erosion and pericoronitis

All conditionsHealth promotion, education and behaviour change: multilevel approach including individual (athlete), local (medical, dental and performance support team) and high level (national/international sport organisations)
Dental cariesDietary: when feasible, reduced frequency and amount of carbohydrate intake. Matching sports drink to purpose, for example, for hydration, hypotonic drink or water
Fluoride: for example, toothpaste containing at least 1400 ppm fluoride and preferably 5000 ppm
Oral hygiene: effective daily dental plaque removal (toothbrushing and interdental cleaning)
Periodontal diseaseOral hygiene: behaviour change to achieve effective daily dental plaque removal (toothbrushing and interdental cleaning)
Assessment: early detection and treatment (secondary prevention)
Risk factor reduction: tobacco use cessation
Dental erosionDietary: reduced frequency of acidic food/beverage intake
Sports drinks: where feasible; reduced frequency, avoiding prolonged retention in mouth, using straw to drink
PericoronitisOral hygiene: careful plaque removal around impacted third molar
Extraction: extraction of third molar after no more than two episodes of pericoronitis